Table of Contents
ISRN Oxidative Medicine
Volume 2014, Article ID 412389, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/412389
Research Article

Effect of Indoxyl Sulfate on Oxidative Stress, Apoptosis, and Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 in Leukocytes

1Division of Nephrology, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina (UNIFESP-EPM), Departamento de Medicina, Disciplina de Nefrologia, V. Clementino, 04039-000 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
2Division of Nephrology, Tufts School of Medicine, Boston, USA
3Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Brazil
4Division of Health Sciences, Universidade Nove de Julho, Brazil

Received 28 December 2013; Accepted 17 March 2014; Published 14 April 2014

Academic Editors: N. Ercal and J. Liu

Copyright © 2014 Edgar Ferreira da Cruz et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

This study showed that indoxyl sulfate, an uremic toxin present in the serum of patients with chronic kidney disease, increases oxidative stress and apoptosis in human neutrophils and reduces the production of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) by peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC). It is possible that these effects caused by this toxin contribute to vascular injury of the endothelium and decreased response to infectious insults, respectively.