Table of Contents
ISRN Cardiology
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 416253, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/416253
Review Article

Risks and Benefits of Thrombolytic, Antiplatelet, and Anticoagulant Therapies for ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction: Systematic Review

1Serviço de Cardiologia e Cirurgia Cardiovascular, Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Avenida Professor Alfredo Balena 110, Campus Saúde, 30130-100 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
2Serviço de Hemodinâmca do Hospital Universitário São José (INCOR Minas), Rua Aimorés 2896, Barro Preto, 30140-073 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
3Departamento de Clínica Médica da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Avenida Professor Alfredo Balena 190, Campus Saúde, 30130-100 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
4Departamento de Estatística, Instituto de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Avenida Antônio Carlos 6.627, Campus Pampulha, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil

Received 14 October 2013; Accepted 26 November 2013; Published 6 February 2014

Academic Editors: P. Marino and M. Takahashi

Copyright © 2014 Bruno Ramos Nascimento et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. American Heart Association, Heart and Stroke Statistical Update, 2007, http://www.americanheart.org.
  2. B. Phibbs, F. Marcus, H. J. Marriott, A. Moss, and D. H. Spodick, “Q-wave versus non-Q wave myocardial infarction: a meaningless distinction,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 576–582, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. D. P. Zippes, P. Libby, R. O. Bonow, and E. Braunwald, Hemostasis, Thrombosis, Fibrinolisys and Cardiovascular Disease, Braunwald: Heart Disease, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2005.
  4. I. Pitrou, I. Boutron, N. Ahmad, and P. Ravaud, “Reporting of safety results in published reports of randomized controlled trials,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 169, no. 19, pp. 1756–1761, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. E. M. Antman, D. T. Anbe, P. W. Armstrong et al., “ACC/AHA guidelines for the management of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee to Revise the 1999 Guidelines for the Management of Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction),” Circulation, vol. 110, pp. 588–636, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. E. M. Antman, M. Hand, P. W. Armstrong et al., “2007 Focused update of the ACC/AHA 2004 guidelines for the management of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on practice guidelines: developed in collaboration With the Canadian Cardiovascular Society endorsed by the American Academy of Family Physicians: 2007 Writing Group to Review New Evidence and Update the ACC/AHA, 2004 Guidelines for the Management of Patients With ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction, Writing on Behalf of the 2004 Writing Committee,” Circulation, vol. 117, no. 2, pp. 296–329, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. F. van de Werf, J. Bax, A. Betriu et al., “Management of acute myocardial infarction in patients presenting with persistent ST-segment elevation: the Task Force on the Management of ST-Segment Elevation Acute Myocardial Infarction of the European Society of Cardiology,” Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia, vol. 29, no. 23, pp. 2909–2945, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. D. Moher, A. Liberati, J. Tetzlaff, and D. G. Altman, “Reprint-preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement,” Physical Therapy, vol. 89, no. 9, pp. 873–880, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. A. Liberati, D. G. Altman, J. Tetzlaff et al., “The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: explanation and elaboration,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 151, no. 4, pp. W65–W94, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. C. O. Phillips, A. Kashani, D. K. Ko, G. Francis, and H. M. Krumholz, “Adverse effects of combination angiotensin II receptor blockers plus angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors for left ventricular dysfunction: a quantitative review of data from randomized clinical trials,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 167, no. 18, pp. 1930–1936, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. H. C. Bucher, G. H. Guyatt, L. E. Griffith, and S. D. Walter, “The results of direct and indirect treatment comparisons in meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 683–691, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. W. van't Hof, J. Ten Berg, T. Heestermans et al., “Prehospital initiation of tirofiban in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary angioplasty (On-TIME 2): a multicentre, double-blind, randomised controlled trial,” The Lancet, vol. 372, no. 9638, pp. 537–546, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. G. Montalescot, S. D. Wiviott, E. Braunwald et al., “Prasugrel compared with clopidogrel in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (TRITON-TIMI 38): double-blind, randomised controlled trial,” The Lancet, vol. 373, no. 9665, pp. 723–731, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. Mehilli, A. Kastrati, S. Schulz et al., “Abciximab in patients with acute sT-segment-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention after clopidogrel loading a randomized double-blind trial,” Circulation, vol. 119, no. 14, pp. 1933–1940, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. E. Tcheng, D. E. Kandzari, C. L. Grines et al., “Benefits and risks of abciximab use in primary angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction: the controlled abciximab and device investigation to lower late angioplasty complications (CADILLAC) trial,” Circulation, vol. 108, no. 11, pp. 1316–1323, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. Valgimigli, G. Campo, G. Percoco et al., “Comparison of angioplasty with infusion of tirofiban or abciximab and with implantation of sirolimus-eluting or uncoated stents for acute myocardial infarction: the multistrategy randomized trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 299, no. 15, pp. 1788–1799, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. F. van de Werf, “Primary versus tenecteplase-facilitated percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (ASSENT-4 PCI): randomised trial,” The Lancet, vol. 367, no. 9510, pp. 569–578, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. W. van't Hof, N. Ernst, M. J. de Boer et al., “FT Facilitation of primary coronary angioplasty by early start of a glycoprotein 2b/3a inhibitor: results of the ongoing tirofiban in myocardial infarction evaluation (On-TIME) trial,” European Heart Journal, vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 837–846, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. G. W. Stone, B. Witzenbichler, G. Guagliumi et al., “Bivalirudin during primary PCI in acute myocardial infarction,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 358, no. 21, pp. 2218–2230, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. R. Mehran, B. Brodie, D. A. Cox et al., “The harmonizing outcomes with RevascularIZatiON and stents in acute myocardial infarction (HORIZONS-AMI) trial: study design and rationale,” The American Heart Journal, vol. 156, no. 1, pp. 44–56, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. C. di Mario, D. Dudek, F. Piscione et al., “Immediate angioplasty versus standard therapy with rescue angioplasty after thrombolysis in the combined abciximab REteplase stent study in acute myocardial infarction (CARESS-in-AMI): an open, prospective, randomised, multicentre trial,” The Lancet, vol. 371, no. 9612, pp. 559–568, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. E. J. Topol, “Reperfusion therapy for acute myocardial infarction with fibrinolytic therapy or combination reduced fibrinolytic therapy and platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibition: the GUSTO V randomised trial,” The Lancet, vol. 357, no. 9272, pp. 1905–1914, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. E. M. Antman, D. A. Morrow, C. H. McCabe et al., “Enoxaparin versus unfractionated heparin with fibrinolysis for ST-elevation myocardial infarction,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 354, no. 14, pp. 1477–1488, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. F. J. van de Werf, “Efficacy and safety of tenecteplase in combination with enoxaparin, abciximab, or unfractionated heparin: the ASSENT-3 randomised trial in acute myocardial infarction,” The Lancet, vol. 358, no. 9282, pp. 605–613, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. F. van de Werf, J. Adgey, D. Ardissino et al., “Single-bolus tenecteplase compared with front-loaded alteplase in acute myocardial infarction: the ASSENT-2 double-blind randomised trial,” The Lancet, vol. 354, no. 9180, pp. 716–722, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. R. G. Wilcox, E. Antman, E. Braunwald, and A. Skene, “Intravenous NPA for the treatment of infarcting myocardium early. InTIME-II, a double-blind comparison on of single-bolus lanoteplase vs accelerated alteplase for the treatment of patients with acute myocardial infarction,” European Heart Journal, vol. 21, no. 24, pp. 2005–2013, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. A. Liem, F. Zijlstra, J. P. Ottervanger et al., “High dose Heparin as pretreatment for primary angioplasty in acute myocardial infarction: the Heparin in Early Patency (HEAP) randomized trial,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 600–604, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. F. van de Werf, C. P. Cannon, A. Luyten et al., “Safety assessment of single-bolus administration of TNK tissue- plasminogen activator in acute myocardial infarction: the ASSENT-1 trial,” The American Heart Journal, vol. 137, no. 5, pp. 786–791, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. C. P. Cannon, C. M. Gibson, C. H. McCabe et al., “TNK-tissue plasminogen activator compared with front-loaded alteplase in acute myocardial infarction: results of the TIMI 10B trial,” Circulation, vol. 98, no. 25, pp. 2805–2814, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. B. K. Metz, H. D. White, C. B. Granger et al., “Randomized comparison of direct thrombin inhibition versus heparin in conjunction with fibrinolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction: results from the GUSTO-Ilb trial,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 1493–1498, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. “A comparison of reteplase with alteplase for acute myocardial infarction. The Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries (GUSTO III) Investigators,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 337, no. 16, pp. 1118–1123, 1997.
  32. U. Tebbe, R. Michels, J. Adgey et al., “Randomized, double-blind study comparing saruplase with streptokinase therapy in acute myocardial infarction: the COMPASS equivalence trial,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 487–493, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. F. van de Werf, “A comparison of continuous infusion of alteplase with double-bolus administration for acute myocardial infarction,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 337, no. 16, pp. 1124–1130, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. E. M. Antman, “Hirudin in acute myocardial infarction: thrombolysis and thrombin inhibition in myocardial infarction (TIMI) 9B trial,” Circulation, vol. 94, no. 5, pp. 911–921, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. R. W. Smalling, C. Bode, J. Kalbfleisch et al., “More rapid, complete, and stable coronary thrombolysis with bolus administration of reteplase compared with alteplase infusion in acute myocardial infarction,” Circulation, vol. 91, no. 11, pp. 2725–2732, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. R. G. Wilcox, “Randomised, double-blind comparison of reteplase double-bolus administration with streptokinase in acute myocardial infarction (INJECT): trial to investigate equivalence,” The Lancet, vol. 346, no. 8971, pp. 329–336, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. G. A. Feruglio, A. Lotto, F. Rovelli et al., “GISSI-2: a factorial randomised trial of alteplase versus streptokinase and heparin versus no heparin among 12,490 patients with acute myocardial infarction,” The Lancet, vol. 336, no. 8707, pp. 65–71, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. F. van de Werf and A. E. R. Arnold, “Intravenous tissue plasminogen activator and size of infarct, left ventricular function, and survival in acute myocardial infarction,” British Medical Journal, vol. 297, no. 6660, pp. 1374–1379, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. M. S. Sabatine, C. P. Cannon, C. M. Gibson et al., “Addition of clopidogrel to aspirin and fibrinolytic therapy for myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 352, no. 12, pp. 1179–1189, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. R. M. Califf, E. J. Topol, R. S. Stack et al., “Evaluation of combination thrombolytic therapy and timing of cardiac catheterization in acute myocardial infarction: results of thrombolysis and angioplasty in myocardial infarction - Phase 5 randomized trial,” Circulation, vol. 83, no. 5, pp. 1543–1556, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. D. P. de Bono, M. L. Simoons, J. Tijssen et al., “Effect of early intravenous heparin on coronary patency, infarct size, and bleeding complications after alteplase thrombolysis: results of a randomised double blind European Cooperative Study Group trial,” British Heart Journal, vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 122–128, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. J. Hampton, R. Wilcox, P. Armstrong et al., “Late assessment of thrombolytic efficacy (LATE) study with alteplase 6-24 hours after onset of acute myocardial infarction,” The Lancet, vol. 342, no. 8874, pp. 759–766, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. E. Braunwald, G. L. Knatterud, M. L. Terrin et al., “Comparison of invasive and conservative strategies after treatment with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator in acute myocardial infarction. Results of the thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) phase II trial,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 320, no. 10, pp. 618–627, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. P. W. Armstrong, P. X. Adams, H. R. Al-Khalidi et al., “Assessment of pexelizumab in acute myocardial infarction (APEX AMI): a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study of pexelizumab in patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention,” The American Heart Journal, vol. 149, no. 3, pp. 402–407, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. F. J. van de Werf, “Efficacy and safety of tenecteplase in combination with enoxaparin, abciximab, or unfractionated heparin: the ASSENT-3 randomised trial in acute myocardial infarction,” The Lancet, vol. 358, no. 9282, pp. 605–613, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. E. Bonnefoy, F. Lapostolle, A. Leizorovicz et al., “Primary angioplasty versus prehospital fibrinolysis in acute myocardial infarction: a randomised study,” The Lancet, vol. 360, no. 9336, pp. 825–829, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. A. M. Ross, K. S. Coyne, J. S. Reiner et al., “A randomized trial comparing primary angioplasty with a strategy of short-acting thrombolysis and immediate planned rescue angioplasty in acute myocardial infarction: the PACT trial,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 1954–1962, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. M. Simoons, M. Krzemiñska-Pakula, A. Alonso et al., “Improved reperfusion and clinical outcome with enoxaparin as an adjunct to streptokinase thrombolysis in acute myocardial infarction: the AMI-SK study,” European Heart Journal, vol. 23, no. 16, pp. 1282–1290, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. “Randomised trial of intravenous streptokinase, oral aspirin, both, or neither among 17, 187 cases of suspected acute myocardial infarction: ISIS-2. ISIS-2 (Second International Study of Infarct Survival) Collaborative Group,” The Lancet, vol. 2, no. 8607, pp. 349–360, 1988.
  50. “Randomised trial of late thrombolysis in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. EMERAS (Estudio Multicentrico Estreptoquinasa Republicas de America del Sur) Collaborative Group,” The Lancet, vol. 342, no. 8874, pp. 767–772, 1993.
  51. J. Santopinto, F. A. Cordero, D. Fainstein et al., “Randomized trial of ridogrel, a combined thromboxane A2 synthase inhibitor and thromboxane A2/prostaglandin endoperoxide receptor antagonist, versus aspirin as adjunct to thrombolysis in patients with acute myocardial infarction: the ridogrel versus aspirin patency trial (RAPT),” Circulation, vol. 89, no. 2, pp. 588–595, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. D. Hunt, J. Varigos, F. Dienstl et al., “ISIS-3: a randomised comparison of streptokinase vs tissue plasminogen activator vs anistreplase and of aspirin plus heparin vs aspirin alone among 41,299 cases of suspected acute myocardial infarction,” The Lancet, vol. 339, no. 8796, pp. 753–770, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. F. van de Werf, R. G. Wilcox, G. I. Barbash et al., “In-hospital mortality and clinical course of 20,891 patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction randomised between alteplase and streptokinase with or without heparin,” The Lancet, vol. 336, no. 8707, pp. 71–75, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. H. White, H. D. White, R. J. Simes et al., “Thrombin-specific anticoagulation with bivalirudin versus heparin in patients receiving fibrinolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction: the HERO-2 randomised trial,” The Lancet, vol. 358, no. 9296, pp. 1855–1863, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. K.-L. Neuhaus, G. P. Molhoek, U. Zeymer et al., “Recombinant hirudin (lepirudin) for the improvement of thrombolysis with streptokinase in patients with acute myocardial infarction: results of the HIT-4 trial,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 966–973, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. Z. M. Chen, H. C. Pan, Y. P. Chen et al., “Early intravenous then oral metoprolol in 45, 852 patients with acute myocardial infarction: randomised placebo-controlled trial,” The Lancet, vol. 366, no. 9497, pp. 1622–1632, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  57. H. White, H. D. White, R. J. Simes et al., “Thrombin-specific anticoagulation with bivalirudin versus heparin in patients receiving fibrinolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction: the HERO-2 randomised trial,” The Lancet, vol. 358, no. 9296, pp. 1855–1863, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. M. L. Simoons, P. W. Serruys, and M. v/d Brand, “Improved survival after early thrombolysis in acute myocardial infarction,” The Lancet, vol. 2, no. 8455, pp. 578–582, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. R. Schroder, K.-L. Neuhaus, and A. Leizorovicz, “A prospective trial of intravenous streptokinase in acute myocardial infarction (I.S.A.M.). Mortality, morbidity, and infarct size at 21 days,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 314, no. 23, pp. 1465–1471, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. The GUSTO investigators, “An international randomized trial comparing four thrombolytic strategies for acute myocardial infarction,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 329, no. 10, pp. 673–682, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  61. S. J. Brener, L. A. Barr, J. E. B. Burchenal et al., “Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa blockade with primary angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction,” Circulation, vol. 98, no. 8, pp. 734–741, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. P. Kuhn, K. Atzenhofer-Baumgartner, F. Chmelizek et al., “Prehospital thrombolytic therapy in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 329, no. 6, pp. 383–389, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. D. A. Chamberlain, D. P. De Bono, K. A. A. Fox et al., “Long-term effects of intravenous anisterplase in acute myocardial infarction: final report of the AIMS study,” The Lancet, vol. 335, no. 8687, pp. 427–431, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. R. G. Wilcox, “Thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator in suspected acute myocardial infarction. The ASSET study,” Chest, vol. 95, no. 5, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. P. Rossi and L. Bolognese, “Comparison of intravenous urokinase plus heparin versus heparin alone in acute myocardial infarction,” The American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 68, no. 6, pp. 585–592, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. W. J. Rogers, D. S. Baim, J. M. Gore et al., “Comparison of immediate invasive, delayed invasive, and conservative strategies after tissue-type plasminogen activator. Results of the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) Phase II-A Trial,” Circulation, vol. 81, no. 5, pp. 1457–1476, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. W. J. Cantor, D. Fitchett, B. Borgundvaag et al., “Routine early angioplasty after fibrinolysis for acute myocardial infarction,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 360, no. 26, pp. 2705–2718, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. S. Yusuf, S. R. Mehta, S. Chrolavicius et al., “Effects of fondaparinux on mortality and reinfarction in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: the OASIS-6 randomized trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 295, no. 13, pp. 1519–1530, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. S. Yusuf, S. R. Mehta, C. Xie et al., “Effects of reviparin, a low-molecular-weight heparin, on mortality, reinfarction, and strokes in patients with acute myocardial infarction presenting with ST-segment elevation,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 293, no. 4, pp. 427–436, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. “Randomised controlled trial of subcutaneous calcium-heparin in acute myocardial infarction,” The Lancet, vol. 2, no. 8656, pp. 182–186, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  71. “Effectiveness of intravenous thrombolytic treatment in acute myocardial infarction. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Streptochinasi nell'Infarto Miocardico (GISSI),” The Lancet, vol. 1, no. 8478, pp. 397–402, 1986.
  72. J. H. Chesebro, G. Knatterud, R. Roberts et al., “Thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) trial, phase I: a comparison between intravenous tissue plasminogen activator and intravenous streptokinase. Clinical findings through hospital discharge,” Circulation, vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 142–154, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. F. M. Turazza and G. Cucchi, “Prognostic stratification at discharge after acute myocardial infarct: the significance of the female sex. Participants in the GISSI-2 study. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Streptochinasi nell'Infarto Miocardico,” Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia, vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 1585–1595, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. M. L. Simoons, P. W. Serruys, M. vd Brand et al., “Improved survival after early thrombolysis in acute myocardial infarction. A randomised trial by the Interuniversity Cardiology Institute in The Netherlands,” The Lancet, vol. 2, no. 8455, pp. 578–582, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  75. S. Yusuf, J. Wittes, and L. Friedman, “Overview of results of randomized clinical trials in heart disease. II. Unstable angina, heart failure, primary prevention with aspirin, and risk factor modification,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 260, no. 15, pp. 2259–2263, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. P. Theroux, H. Ouimet, J. McCans et al., “Aspirin, heparin, or both to treat acute unstable angina,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 319, no. 17, pp. 1105–1111, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. J. A. Cairns, M. Gent, and J. Singer, “Aspirin, sulfinpyrazone, or both in unstable angina. results of a Canadian Multicenter Trial,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 313, no. 22, pp. 1369–1375, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. H. D. Lewis Jr., J. W. Davis, D. G. Archibald et al., “Protective effects of aspirin against acute myocardial infarction and death in men with unstable angina. results of a veterans administration cooperative study,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 309, no. 7, pp. 396–403, 1983. View at Google Scholar
  79. D. Moher, A. Liberati, J. Tetzlaff, and D. G. Altman, “Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement,” British Medical Journal, vol. 62, no. 10, pp. 1006–1012, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. M. R. Sousa and A. L. Ribeiro, “Systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic and prognostic studies: a tutorial,” Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia, vol. 92, no. 3, pp. 229–38, 35–45, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  81. A. M. Glenny, D. G. Altman, F. Song et al., “Indirect comparisons of competing interventions,” Health Technology Assessment, vol. 9, no. 26, pp. 1–134, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. T. Jernberg, P. Johanson, C. Held, B. Svennblad, J. Lindbäck, and L. Wallentin, “Association between adoption of evidence-based treatment and survival for patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 305, no. 16, pp. 1677–1684, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. C. P. Cannon, A. Battler, R. G. Brindis et al., “American College of Cardiology key data elements and definitions for measuring the clinical management and outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndromes: a report of the American College of Cardiology Task Force on Clinical Data Standards (Acute Coronary Syndromes Writing Committee),” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 38, no. 7, pp. 2114–2130, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. S. Valente, C. Lazzeri, M. Chiostri, L. Osmanagaj, C. Giglioli, and G. F. Gensini, “STEMI patients—the more you bleed, the more you die: a comparison between classifications,” Clinical Cardiology, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 90–96, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. S. V. Rao, K. O'Grady, K. S. Pieper et al., “A comparison of the clinical impact of bleeding measured by two different classifications among patients with acute coronary syndromes,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 809–816, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. G. W. Stone, M. Bertrand, A. Colombo et al., “Acute Catheterization and Urgent Intervention Triage strategY (ACUITY) trial: study design and rationale,” The American Heart Journal, vol. 148, no. 5, pp. 764–775, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. D. L. Bhatt, A. M. Lincoff, C. M. Gibson et al., “Intravenous platelet blockade with cangrelor during PCI,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 361, no. 24, pp. 2330–2341, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. S. Amlani, T. Nadarajah, R. Afzal, R. Pal-Sayal, J. W. Eikelboom, and M. K. Natarajan, “Mortality and morbidity following a major bleed in a registry population with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction,” Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 434–440, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. S. Golder, Y. K. Loke, and M. Bland, “Unpublished data can be of value in systematic reviews of adverse effects: methodological overview,” Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, vol. 63, no. 10, pp. 1071–1081, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. P. G. Steg, J. López-Sendón, E. Lopez de Sa et al., “External validity of clinical trials in acute myocardial infarction,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 167, no. 1, pp. 68–73, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus