Table 3: Examples of microbial strains that are used for biofuel production.

Strain nameStrain descriptionBiofuel typeTiter (g/L)Yield
(g/g consumed sugar)
Reference

S. cerevisiae 424A (LNH-ST)Xylose and glucose fermenting strain. Incorporated XR and XDH genes from S. stipitis and over-expressed endogenous xylulokinase geneEthanol450.4[222]

S. cerevisiae TMB3400Same as aboveEthanol330.51[223]

S. cerevisiae GLBRC Y35Same as aboveEthanol460.49[224]

S. cerevisiae RWB 218Xylose and glucose fermenting strain. Incorporated XI gene from piromyces; overexpression of endogenous xylulokinase, ribose 5-phosphate isomerase, ribulose 5-phosphate epimerase, transketolase and transaldolase genes; knockout of GRE3 gene, which encodes an aldose reductase.Ethanol470.38[225]

S. cerevisiae  DA24-16BT3Xylose, glucose and cellobiose-fermenting strain. Incorporation of XR and XDH genes for xylose fermentation, and cellodextrin transporter and intracellular β-glucosidase genes for cellobiose consumptionEthanol600.38[205]

E. coli KO11Homoethanolic fermentation strain. Incorporated pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase genes (PET operon) from Zymomonas mobilis.Ethanol40+0.44~0.51[208]

Zymomonas mobilis AX101Genetically engineered xylose, arabinose and glucose fermenting strainEthanol42+0.42 (estimated)[196]

S. stipitis FPL-061A mutant selected for growth on L-xylose in the presence of respiratory inhibitorsEthanol290.42[286]

Clostridium thermocellum LQRINative CBP strainEthanol1.40.26[212]

Clostridium phytofermentans ATCC 700394Native CBP strainEthanol2.80.39[216]

Clostridium  acetobutylicum P262Native acetone, butanol and ethanol producing strainAcetone, butanol, and ethanol2.9/8.1/0.30.39[195]

Clostridium beijerinckii NRRL B593Native isopropanol, butanol and ethanol producing strainIsopropanol, butanol, and ethanol3.2/6.9/0.450.32[241]

E.  coli strains Abiotic long chain keto acids and alcohols producing strains, achieved through extending branched-chain amino acid pathways1-Propanol,
isobutanol,
1-butanol,
1-pentanol, and so forth
0.007~1.2N/A[197]

Saccharomyces cerevisiae Overexpression of genes in valine metabolismIsobutanol<0.10.00097[227]

Saccharomyces cerevisiae Gevo strains for n-butanol and Isobutanol production; incorporated butanol synthetic pathway from Clostridia species; Built isobutanol pathway either in mitochondria or in the cytosol using endogenous or heterologous genes n-butanol/isobutanolN/AN/A[226, 228]

Saccharomyces cerevisiae Butamax/Dupont strains for n-butanol, sec-butanol, and isobutanol production. Incorporated many different heterologous genes and endogenous genes to build butanol synthesis pathways in either mitochondria or cytosol. n-butanol/sec-butanol/isobutanolN/AN/A[229, 232]

Saccharomyces cerevisiae Amyris strain for isoprenoid production. Strong expression of Mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway genes and manipulation of many other genesisoprenoidN/AN/A[232]

Rhodosporidium Toruloides Y4Lignocellulosic hydrolysate domesticated strain that could consume both glucose and xyloseLipids5.50.10[198]

Cryptococcus curvatus Native oleaginous yeast that could consume both glucose and xyloseLipids5.80.20[199]

Lipomyces starkeyi Native oleaginous yeast that could consume both glucose and xyloseLipids4.60.16[199]