Table of Contents
ISRN Civil Engineering
Volume 2014, Article ID 468510, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/468510
Review Article

Properties of Concrete at Elevated Temperatures

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA

Received 18 September 2013; Accepted 16 January 2014; Published 13 March 2014

Academic Editors: R. Kacianauskas, I. G. Raftoyiannis, and J. Wang

Copyright © 2014 Venkatesh Kodur. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. ACI 216.1, “Code requirements for determining fire resistance of concrete and masonry construction assemblies,” ACI 216.1-07/TMS-0216-07, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, Mich, USA, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  2. ACI-318, Building Code Requirements For ReinForced Concrete and Commentary, American Concrete Institute,, Farmington Hills, Mich, USA, 2008.
  3. “EN 1991-1-2: actions on structures. Part 1-2: general actions—actions on structures exposed to fire,” Eurocode 1, European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium, 2002.
  4. “EN, 1992-1-2: design of concrete structures. Part 1-2: general rules—structural fire design,” Eurocode 2, European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium, 2004.
  5. A. H. Buchanan, Structural Design For Fire Safety, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, UK, 2002.
  6. J. A. Purkiss, Fire Safety Engineering Design of Structures, Butterworth-Heinemann, Elsevier, Oxoford, UK, 2007.
  7. V. R. Kodur and N. Raut, “Performance of concrete structures under fire hazard: emerging trends,” The Indian Concrete Journal, vol. 84, no. 2, pp. 23–31, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  8. “Standard test methods for fire tests of building construction and materials,” ASTM E119-08b, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, Pa, USA, 2008.
  9. “Fire design of concrete structures—materials, structures and modelling,” FIB Bulletin 38, The International Federation for Structural Concrete, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2007.
  10. V. K. R. Kodur, T. C. Wang, and F. P. Cheng, “Predicting the fire resistance behaviour of high strength concrete columns,” Cement and Concrete Composites, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 141–153, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. V. Kodur, M. Dwaikat, and N. Raut, “Macroscopic FE model for tracing the fire response of reinforced concrete structures,” Engineering Structures, vol. 31, no. 10, pp. 2368–2379, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. V. R. Kodur and T. Z. Harmathy, “Properties of building materials,” in SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering, P. J. DiNenno, Ed., National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, Mass, USA, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  13. M. B. Dwaikat and V. K. R. Kodur, “Fire induced spalling in high strength concrete beams,” Fire Technology, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 251–274, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. “Standard test method for evaluating the resistance to thermal transmission of materials by the guarded heat flow meter technique,” ASTM E1530, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, Pa, USA, 2011.
  15. ASCE, Structural Fire Protection, ASCE Committee on Fire Protection, Structural Division, American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, NY, USA, 1992.
  16. K.-Y. Shin, S.-B. Kim, J.-H. Kim, M. Chung, and P.-S. Jung, “Thermo-physical properties and transient heat transfer of concrete at elevated temperatures,” Nuclear Engineering and Design, vol. 212, no. 1–3, pp. 233–241, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. B. Adl-Zarrabi, L. Boström, and U. Wickström, “Using the TPS method for determining the thermal properties of concrete and wood at elevated temperature,” Fire and Materials, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 359–369, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. Z. P. Bažant and M. F. Kaplan, Concrete at High Temperatures: Material Properties and Mathematical Models, Longman Group Limited, Essex, UK, 1996.
  19. L. T. Phan, “Fire performance of high-strength concrete: a report of the state-of-the-art,” Tech. Rep., National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md, USA, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  20. T. Z. Harmathy and L. W. Allen, “Thermal properties of selected masonry unit concretes,” Journal American Concrete Institution, vol. 70, no. 2, pp. 132–142, 1973. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. V. R. Kodur and M. A. Sultan, “Thermal propeties of high strength concrete at elevated temperatures,” American Concrete Institute, Special Publication, SP-179, pp. 467–480, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  22. “Standard test method for determining specific heat capacity by differential scanning calorimetry,” ASTM C1269, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, Pa, USA, 2011.
  23. ISO/DIS22007-2:2008, “Determination of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity, Part 2: transient plane heat source (hot disc) method,” ISO, Geneva, Switzerland, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  24. T. Z. Harmathy, “Thermal properties of concrete at elevated temperatures,” ASTM Journal of Materials, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 47–74, 1970. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. P. K. Mehta and P. J. M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 2006.
  26. S. Mindess, J. F. Young, and D. Darwin, Concrete, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA, 2003.
  27. W. Khaliq and V. Kodur, “High temperature mechanical properties of high strength fly ash concrete with and without fibers,” ACI Materials Journal, vol. 109, no. 6, pp. 665–674, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  28. A. M. Neville, Properties of Concrete, Pearson Education, Essex, UK, 2004.
  29. S. P. Shah, “Do fibers increase the tensile strength of cement-based matrixes?” ACI Materials Journal, vol. 88, no. 6, pp. 595–602, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  30. Z. P. Bazant and J.-C. Chern, “Stress-induced thermal and shrinkage strains in concrete,” Journal of Engineering Mechanics, vol. 113, no. 10, pp. 1493–1511, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. T. Z. Harmathy, “A comprehensive creep model,” Journal of Basic Engineering, vol. 89, no. 3, pp. 496–502, 1967. View at Google Scholar
  32. F. H. Wittmann, Ed., Fundamental Research on Creep and Shrinkage of Concrete, Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, Netherlands, 1982.
  33. M. B. Dwaikat and V. K. R. Kodur, “Hydrothermal model for predicting fire-induced spalling in concrete structural systems,” Fire Safety Journal, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 425–434, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. V. K. R. Kodur and L. Phan, “Critical factors governing the fire performance of high strength concrete systems,” Fire Safety Journal, vol. 42, no. 6-7, pp. 482–488, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. X. Yu, X. Zha, and Z. Huang, “The influence of spalling on the fire resistance of RC structures,” Advanced Materials Research, vol. 255–260, pp. 519–523, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. V. K. R. Kodur and M. Dwaikat, “Effect of fire induced spalling on the response of reinforced concrete beams,” International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 71–82, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  37. T. Z. Harmathy, “Moisture and heat transport with particular reference to concrete,” NRCC 12143, National Council of Canada, 1971. View at Google Scholar
  38. T. Z. Harmathy, Fire Safety Design and Concrete, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 1993.
  39. G. A. Khoury, “Concrete spalling assessment methodologies and polypropylene fibre toxicity analysis in tunnel fires,” Structural Concrete, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 11–18, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. P. Kalifa, G. Chéné, and C. Gallé, “High-temperature behaviour of HPC with polypropylene fibres—from spalling to microstructure,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 31, no. 10, pp. 1487–1499, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. V. K. R. Kodur and M. A. Sultan, “Effect of temperature on thermal properties of high-strength concrete,” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 101–107, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. M. G. Van Geem, J. Gajda, and K. Dombrowski, “Thermal properties of commercially available high-strength concretes,” Cement, Concrete and Aggregates, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 38–54, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. T. T. Lie and V. R. Kodur, “Thermal properties of fibre-reinforced concrete at elevated temperatures,” IR 683, IRC, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  44. T. T. Lie and V. K. R. Kodur, “Thermal and mechanical properties of steel-fibre-reinforced concrete at elevated temperatures,” Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 511–517, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. W. Khaliq, Performance characterization of high performance concretes under fire conditions [Ph.D. thesis], Michigan State University, 2012.
  46. V. K. R. Kodur, M. M. S. Dwaikat, and M. B. Dwaikat, “High-temperature properties of concrete for fire resistance modeling of structures,” ACI Materials Journal, vol. 105, no. 5, pp. 517–527, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. D. R. Flynn, “Response of high performance concrete to fire conditions: review of thermal property data and measurement techniques,” Tech. Rep., National Institute of Standards and Technology, Millwood, Va, USA, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  48. T. Harada, J. Takeda, S. Yamane, and F. Furumura, “Strength, elasticity and thermal properties of concrete subjected to elevated temperatures,” ACI Concrete For Nuclear Reactor SP, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 377–406, 1972. View at Google Scholar
  49. V. Kodur and W. Khaliq, “Effect of temperature on thermal properties of different types of high-strength concrete,” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, ASCE, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 793–801, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. W. C. Tang and T. Y. Lo, “Mechanical and fracture properties of normal-and high-strength concretes with fly ash after exposure to high temperatures,” Magazine of Concrete Research, vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 323–330, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. A. Noumowe, “Mechanical properties and microstructure of high strength concrete containing polypropylene fibres exposed to temperatures up to 200°C,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 35, no. 11, pp. 2192–2198, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. M. Li, C. Qian, and W. Sun, “Mechanical properties of high-strength concrete after fire,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 1001–1005, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. RILEM TC 129-MHT, “Test methods for mechanical properties of concrete at high temperatures—compressive strength for service and accident conditions,” Materials and Structures, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 410–414, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  54. RILEM TC 129-MHT, “Test methods for mechanical properties of concrete at high temperatures, Part 4—tensile strength for service and accident conditions,” Materials and Structures, vol. 33, pp. 219–223, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  55. Y. N. Chan, G. F. Peng, and M. Anson, “Residual strength and pore structure of high-strength concrete and normal strength concrete after exposure to high temperatures,” Cement and Concrete Composites, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 23–27, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. C.-S. Poon, S. Azhar, M. Anson, and Y.-L. Wong, “Comparison of the strength and durability performance of normal- and high-strength pozzolanic concretes at elevated temperatures,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 31, no. 9, pp. 1291–1300, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. B. Chen and J. Liu, “Residual strength of hybrid-fiber-reinforced high-strength concrete after exposure to high temperatures,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 1065–1069, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. A. Lau and M. Anson, “Effect of high temperatures on high performance steel fibre reinforced concrete,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 36, no. 9, pp. 1698–1707, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. W. P. S. Dias, G. A. Khoury, and P. J. E. Sullivan, “Mechanical properties of hardened cement paste exposed to temperatures up to 700°C,” ACI Materials Journal, vol. 87, no. 2, pp. 160–166, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. F. Furumura, T. Abe, and Y. Shinohara, “Mechanical properties of high strength concrete at high temperatures,” in Proceedings of the 4th Weimar Workshop on High Performance Concrete, Material Properties and Design, pp. 237–254, 1995.
  61. R. Felicetti and P. G. Gambarova, “Effects of high temperature on the residual compressive strength of high-strength siliceous concretes,” ACI Materials Journal, vol. 95, no. 4, pp. 395–406, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. K. K. Sideris, “Mechanical characteristics of self-consolidating concretes exposed to elevated temperatures,” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 648–654, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. H. Fares, S. Remond, A. Noumowe, and A. Cousture, “High temperature behaviour of self-consolidating concrete. Microstructure and physicochemical properties,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 488–496, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. A. Behnood and M. Ghandehari, “Comparison of compressive and splitting tensile strength of high-strength concrete with and without polypropylene fibers heated to high temperatures,” Fire Safety Journal, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 1015–1022, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. G. G. Carette, K. E. Painter, and V. M. Malhotra, “Sustained high temperature effect on concretes made with normal portland cement, normal portland cement and slag, or normal portland cement and fly ash,” Concrete International, vol. 4, no. 7, pp. 41–51, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. R. Felicetti, P. G. Gambarova, G. P. Rosati, F. Corsi, and G. Giannuzzi, “Residual mechanical properties of high-strength concretes subjected to high-temperature cycles,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium of Utilization of High-Strength/High-Performance Concrete, pp. 579–588, Paris, France, 1996.
  67. J. A. Purkiss, “Steel fibre reinforced concrete at elevated temperatures,” International Journal of Cement Composites and Lightweight Concrete, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 179–184, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. P. Rossi, “Steel fiber reinforced concretes (SFRC): an example of French research,” ACI Materials Journal, vol. 91, no. 3, pp. 273–279, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. V. R. Kodur, “Fibre-reinforced concrete for enhancing structural fire resistance of columns,” Fibre-Structural Applications of Fibre-Reinforced Concrete, ACI SP-182, pp. 215–234, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  70. C. R. Cruz, “Elastic properties of concrete at high temperatures,” Journat of the PCA Research and Development Laboratories, vol. 8, pp. 37–45, 1966. View at Google Scholar
  71. I. D. Bennetts, Tech. Rep. MRL/PS23/81/001, BHP Melbourne Research Laboratories, Clayton, Australia, 1981.
  72. C. Castillo and A. J. Durrani, “Effect of transient high temperture on high-strength concrete,” ACI Materials Journal, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 47–53, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. F. P. Cheng, V. K. R. Kodur, and T. C. Wang, “Stress-strain curves for high strength concrete at elevated temperatures,” Tech. Rep. NRCC-46973, National Research Council of Canada, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  74. Y. F. Fu, Y. L. Wong, C. S. Poon, and C. A. Tang, “Stress-strain behaviour of high-strength concrete at elevated temperatures,” Magazine of Concrete Research, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 535–544, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. U. Schneider, “Concrete at high temperatures—a general review,” Fire Safety Journal, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 55–68, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. N. Raut, Response of high strength concrete columns under fire-induced biaxial bending [Ph.D. thesis], Michigan State University, East Lansing, Mich, USA, 2011.
  77. Y.-F. Fu, Y.-L. Wong, C.-S. Poon, C.-A. Tang, and P. Lin, “Experimental study of micro/macro crack development and stress-strain relations of cement-based composite materials at elevated temperatures,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 789–797, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. G. A. Khoury, B. N. Grainger, and P. J. E. Sullivan, “Strain of concrete during fire heating to 600°C,” Magazine of Concrete Research, vol. 37, no. 133, pp. 195–215, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. J. C. MareÂchal, ACI SP 34, American Concrete Institute, Detroit, Mich, USA, 1972.
  80. H. Gross, “High-temperature creep of concrete,” Nuclear Engineering and Design, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 129–147, 1975. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. U. Schneider, U. Diedrichs, W. Rosenberger, and R. Weiss, Sonderforschungsbereich 148, Arbeitsbericht 1978–1980, Teil II, B 3, Technical University of Braunschweig, Germany, 1980.
  82. Y. Anderberg and S. Thelandersson, “Stress and deformation characteristics of concrete at high temperatures, 2-Experimental investigation and material behaviour model,” Bulletin 54, Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden, 1976. View at Google Scholar
  83. V. K. R. Kodur, “Spalling in high strength concrete exposed to fire—concerns, causes, critical parameters and cures,” in Proceedings of the ASCE Structures Congress: Advanced Technology in Structural Engineering, pp. 1–9, May 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. U. Diederichs, U. Jumppanen, and U. Schneider, “High temperature properties and spalling behaviour of high strength concrete,” in Proceedings of the 4th Weimar Workshop on High Performance Concrete, HAB, Weimar, Germany, 1995.
  85. K. D. Hertz, “Limits of spalling of fire-exposed concrete,” Fire Safety Journal, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 103–116, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. Y. Anderberg, “Spalling phenomenon of HPC and OC,” in Proceedings of the International Workshop on Fire Performance of High Strength Concrete, NIST SP 919, NIST, Gaithersburg, Md, USA, 1997.
  87. Z. P. Bažant, “Analysis of pore pressure, thermal stress and fracture in rapidly heated concrete,” in Proceedings of the International Workshop on Fire Performance of High Strength Concrete, NIST SP 919, pp. 155–164, Gaithersburg, Md, USA, 1997.
  88. A. N. Noumowe, R. Siddique, and G. Debicki, “Permeability of high-performance concrete subjected to elevated temperature (600°C),” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 1855–1861, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. V. Boel, K. Audenaert, and G. De Schutter, “Gas permeability and capillary porosity of self-compacting concrete,” Materials and Structures/Materiaux et Constructions, vol. 41, no. 7, pp. 1283–1290, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. U. Danielsen, “Marine concrete structures exposed to hydrocarbon fires,” Tech. Rep., SINTEF-The Norwegian Fire Research Institute, Trondheim, Norway, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  91. V. R. Kodur and M. A. Sultan, “Structural behaviour of high strength concrete columns exposed to fire,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on High Performance and Reactive Powder Concrete, pp. 217–232, 1998.
  92. V. Kodur and R. McGrath, “Fire endurance of high strength concrete columns,” Fire Technology, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 73–87, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. V. K. R. Kodur, F.-P. Cheng, T.-C. Wang, and M. A. Sultan, “Effect of strength and fiber reinforcement on fire resistance of high-strength concrete columns,” Journal of Structural Engineering, vol. 129, no. 2, pp. 253–259, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. L. T. Phan, “Spalling and mechanical properties of high strength concrete at high temperature,” in Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Concrete under Severe Conditions: Environment & Loading (CONSEC '07), CONSEC Committee, Tours, France, 2007.
  95. A. Noumowé, P. Clastres, G. Debicki, and J. Costaz, “Thermal stresses and water vapor pressure of high performance concrete at high temperature,” in Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Utilization of High-Strength/High-Performance Concrete, Paris, France, 1996.
  96. V. K. R. Kodur, “Fiber reinforcement for minimizing spalling in High Strength Concrete structural members exposed to fire,” ACI, Special Publication, Innovations in Fibre-ReinForced Concrete For Value, 216-14, pp. 221–236, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  97. V. K. R. Kodur, “Design solutions for enhancing the fire resistance of high strength concrete columns,” Indian Concrete Journal, vol. 81, no. 10, pp. 9–20, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. V. Kodur, Fire Resistance Design Guidelines for High Strength Concrete Columns, National Research Council, Ontario, Canada, 2003.
  99. A. Bilodeau, V. M. Malhotra, and G. C. Hoff, “Hydrocarbon fire resistance of high strength normal weight and light weight concrete incorporating polypropylene fibres,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on High Performance and Reactive Powder Concrete, Sherbrooke, Canada, 1998.
  100. A. Bilodeau, V. K. R. Kodur, and G. C. Hoff, “Optimization of the type and amount of polypropylene fibres for preventing the spalling of lightweight concrete subjected to hydrocarbon fire,” Cement and Concrete Composites, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 163–174, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. D. P. Bentz, “Fibers, percolation, and spelling of high-performance concrete,” ACI Structural Journal, vol. 97, no. 3, pp. 351–359, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. V. K. R. Kodur and R. McGrath, “Effect of silica fume and lateral confinement on fire endurance of high strength concrete columns,” Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 93–102, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus