Table of Contents
ISRN Microbiology
Volume 2014, Article ID 597418, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/597418
Research Article

Function and Evolution of the Sox Multienzyme Complex in the Marine Gammaproteobacterium Congregibacter litoralis

Leibniz Institute DSMZ-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures, Inhoffenstraße 7B, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany

Received 29 November 2013; Accepted 23 January 2014; Published 31 March 2014

Academic Editors: D. A. Saffarini and J. Tang

Copyright © 2014 Stefan Spring. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Core sets of sox genes were detected in several genome sequenced members of the environmental important OM60/NOR5 clade of marine gammaproteobacteria. However, emendation of media with thiosulfate did not result in stimulation of growth in two of these strains and cultures of Congregibacter litoralis DSM did not oxidize thiosulfate to sulfate in concentrations of one mmol L−1 or above. On the other hand, a significant production of sulfate was detected upon growth with the organic sulfur compounds, cysteine and glutathione. It was found that degradation of glutathione resulted in the formation of submillimolar amounts of thiosulfate in the closely related sox-negative strain Chromatocurvus halotolerans DSM . It is proposed that the Sox multienzyme complex in Congregibacter litoralis and related members of the OM60/NOR5 clade is adapted to the oxidation of submillimolar amounts of thiosulfate and nonfunctional at higher concentrations of reduced inorganic sulfur compounds. Pelagic bacteria thriving in the oxic zones of marine environments may rarely encounter amounts of thiosulfate, which would allow its utilization as electron donor for lithoautotrophic or mixotrophic growth. Consequently, in evolution the Sox multienzyme complex in some of these bacteria may have been optimized for the effective utilization of trace amounts of thiosulfate generated from the degradation of organic sulfur compounds.