Table of Contents
ISRN Pharmacology
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 602436, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/602436
Research Article

Antifungal, Antileishmanial, and Cytotoxicity Activities of Various Extracts of Berberis vulgaris (Berberidaceae) and Its Active Principle Berberine

1Leishmaniasis Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman 76169-14119, Iran
2Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad 68138-33946, Iran
3Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman 76169-14114, Iran
4Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad 68138-33946, Iran
5Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman 76169-14111, Iran
6Department of Entomology, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran 14778-93855, Iran

Received 6 January 2014; Accepted 18 February 2014; Published 10 March 2014

Academic Editors: M. Brunner, K. Cimanga, and G. Edwards

Copyright © 2014 Hossein Mahmoudvand et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

In this study, in vitro antidermatophytic activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, and Microsporum gypseum was studied by disk diffusion test and assessment of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using CLSI broth macrodilution method (M38-A2). Moreover, antileishmanial and cytotoxicity activity of B. vulgaris and berberine against promastigotes of Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica were evaluated by colorimetric MTT assay. The findings indicated that the various extracts of B. vulgaris particularly berberine showed high potential antidermatophytic against pathogenic dermatophytes tested with MIC values varying from 0.125 to >4 mg/mL. The results revealed that B. vulgaris extracts as well as berberine were effective in inhibiting L. major and L. tropica promastigotes growth in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration) values varying from 2.1 to 26.6 μg/mL. Moreover, it could be observed that berberine as compared with B. vulgaris exhibited more cytotoxicity against murine macrophages with CC50 (cytotoxicity concentration for 50% of cells) values varying from 27.3 to 362.6 μg/mL. Results of this investigation were the first step in the search for new antidermatophytic and antileishmanial drugs. However, further works are required to evaluate exact effect of these extracts in animal models as well as volunteer human subjects.