Table of Contents
ISRN Ophthalmology
Volume 2014, Article ID 608390, 7 pages
Review Article

Present and Possible Therapies for Age-Related Macular Degeneration

1School of Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GE, UK
2Ophthalmology Department, University Hospital Aintree, Liverpool L9 7AL, UK

Received 12 February 2014; Accepted 20 March 2014; Published 16 April 2014

Academic Editors: Z. Bashshur, A. Kakehashi, and L. Pierro

Copyright © 2014 Muhammad Khan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of blindness in the elderly population worldwide and is defined as a chronic, progressive disorder characterized by changes occurring within the macula reflective of the ageing process. At present, the prevalence of AMD is currently rising and is estimated to increase by a third by 2020. Although our understanding of the several components underpinning the pathogenesis of this condition has increased significantly, the treatment options for this condition remain substantially limited. In this review, we outline the existing arsenal of therapies available for AMD and discuss the additional role of further novel therapies currently under investigation for this debilitating disease.