Table of Contents
ISRN Physiology
Volume 2014, Article ID 676235, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/676235
Clinical Study

Effects of Nitrate Supplementation on Cardiovascular and Autonomic Reactivity in African-American Females

1Department of Health, Human Performance and Leisure Studies, and the Cancer Center Physical Medicine and Nutrition Laboratory, Howard University, Washington, DC 20059, USA
2Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Howard University College of Medicine and Howard University Hospital, Washington, DC 20060, USA
3Department of Neurology, Howard University College of Medicine and Howard University Hospital, Washington, DC 20060, USA
4Department of Physics and Astronomy, Howard University, Washington, DC 20059, USA
5Department of Physiology & Biophysics, Howard University College of Medicine, Washington, DC 20059, USA

Received 21 November 2013; Accepted 11 January 2014; Published 23 February 2014

Academic Editors: A. Kamiya, S. Perrey, and A. Tse

Copyright © 2014 Vernon Bond et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown et al., “Executive summary: heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation, vol. 121, no. 7, pp. 948–954, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  2. N. B. Anderson, “Racial differences in stress-induced cardiovascular reactivity and hypertension: current status and substantive issues,” Psychological Bulletin, vol. 105, no. 1, pp. 89–105, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. N. B. Anderson, J. D. Lane, M. Muranaka, R. B. Williams Jr., and S. J. Houseworth, “Racial differences in blood pressure and forearm vascular responses to the cold face stimulus,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 57–63, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. N. B. Anderson, H. F. Myers, T. Pickering, and J. S. Jackson, “Hypertension in blacks: psychosocial and biological perspectives,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 161–172, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R. M. Kelsey, B. S. Alpert, S. M. Patterson, and M. Barnard, “Racial differences in hemodyaamic responses to environmental thermal stress among adolescents,” Circulation, vol. 101, no. 19, pp. 2284–2289, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. K. Murphy, B. S. Alpert, D. M. Moes, and G. W. Somes, “Race and cardiovascular reactivity: a neglected relationship,” Hypertension, vol. 8, no. 11, pp. 1075–1083, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. Thomas, K. Semenya, C. B. Thomas et al., “Precursors of hypertension in black compared to white medical students,” Journal of Chronic Diseases, vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 721–727, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. W. Voors, L. S. Webber, and G. S. Berenson, “Racial contrasts in cardiovascular response tests for children from a total community,” Hypertension, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 686–694, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. C. Borghi, F. V. Costa, S. Boschi, A. Mussi, and E. Ambrosioni, “Predictors of stable hypertension in young borderline subjects: a five-year follow-up study,” Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, vol. 8, supplement 5, pp. S138–S141, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. B. Falkner, H. Kushner, G. Onesti, and E. T. Angelakos, “Cardiovascular characteristics in adolescents who develop essential hypertension,” Hypertension, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 521–527, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. Steptoe, D. Melville, and A. Ross, “Behavioral response demands, cardiovascular reactivity, and essential hypertension,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 33–48, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. S. S. Knox, J. Hausdorff, and J. H. Markovitz, “Reactivity as a predictor of subsequent blood pressure: racial differences in the coronary artery risk development in young adults (CARDIA) study,” Hypertension, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 914–919, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. R. Farah, R. Shurtz-Swirski, and M. Nicola, “High blood pressure response to stress ergometry could predict future hypertension,” European Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 366–368, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. S. Stamler and G. Meissner, “Physiology of nitric oxide in skeletal muscle,” Physiological Reviews, vol. 81, no. 1, pp. 209–237, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. L. Kalinowski, I. T. Dobrucki, and T. Malinski, “Race-specific differences in endothelial function: predisposition of african americans to vascular diseases,” Circulation, vol. 109, no. 21, pp. 2511–2517, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. L. J. Ignarro, J. M. Fukuto, J. M. Griscavage, N. E. Rogers, and R. E. Byrns, “Oxidation of nitric oxide in aqueous solution to nitrite but not nitrate: comparison with enzymatically formed nitric oxide from L-arginine,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 90, no. 17, pp. 8103–8107, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. N. G. Hord, Y. Tang, and N. S. Bryan, “Food sources of nitrates and nitrites: the physiologic context for potential health benefits,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. V. Kapil, A. J. Webb, and A. Ahluwalia, “Inorganic nitrate and the cardiovascular system,” Heart, vol. 96, no. 21, pp. 1703–1709, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. O. Lundberg, M. T. Gladwin, A. Ahluwalia et al., “Nitrate and nitrite in biology, nutrition and therapeutics,” Nature Chemical Biology, vol. 5, no. 12, pp. 865–869, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. J. Bailey, J. Fulford, A. Vanhatalo et al., “Dietary nitrate supplementation enhances muscle contractile efficiency during knee-extensor exercise in humans,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 109, no. 1, pp. 135–148, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. S. J. Bailey, P. Winyard, A. Vanhatalo et al., “Dietary nitrate supplementation reduces the O2 cost of low-intensity exercise and enhances tolerance to high-intensity exercise in humans,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 107, no. 4, pp. 1144–1155, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. K. E. Lansley, P. G. Winyard, J. Fulford et al., “Dietary nitrate supplementation reduces the O2 cost of walking and running: a placebo-controlled study,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 110, no. 3, pp. 591–600, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. F. J. Larsen, E. Weitzberg, J. O. Lundberg, and B. Ekblom, “Dietary nitrate reduces maximal oxygen consumption while maintaining work performance in maximal exercise,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 342–347, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. A. Vanhatalo, S. J. Bailey, J. R. Blackwell et al., “Acute and chronic effects of dietary nitrate supplementation on blood pressure and the physiological responses to moderate-intensity and incremental exercise,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 299, no. 4, pp. R1121–R1131, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. J. Webb, N. Patel, S. Loukogeorgakis et al., “Acute blood pressure lowering, vasoprotective, and antiplatelet properties of dietary nitrate via bioconversion to nitrite,” Hypertension, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 784–790, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. A. Kenjale, K. L. Ham, T. Stabler et al., “Dietary nitrate supplementation enhances exercise performance in peripheral arterial disease,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 110, no. 6, pp. 1582–1591, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. W. G. Kubicek, J. N. Karnegis, R. P. Patterson, D. A. Witsoe, and R. H. Mattson, “Development and evaluation of an impedance cardiac output system,” Aerospace Medicine, vol. 37, no. 12, pp. 1208–1212, 1966. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology the North American Society of Pacing Electrophysiology, “Heart rate variability: standards of measurement, physiological interpretation and clinical use,” Circulation, vol. 93, no. 5, pp. 1043–1065, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. G. V. Mendonca, B. Fernhall, K. S. Heffernan, and F. D. Pereira, “Spectral methods of heart rate variability analysis during dynamic exercise,” Clinical Autonomic Research, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 237–245, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. R. M. Millis, R. E. Austin, V. Bond et al., “Effects of high-carbohydrate and high-fat dietary treatments on measures of heart rate variability and sympathovagal balance,” Life Sciences, vol. 85, no. 3-4, pp. 141–145, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. R. U. Pliquett, K. G. Cornish, and I. H. Zucker, “Statin therapy restores sympathovagal balance in experimental heart failure,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 95, no. 2, pp. 700–704, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. G. Recordati, “A thermodynamic model of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems,” Autonomic Neuroscience, vol. 103, no. 1-2, pp. 1–12, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. F. Markos, H. M. Snow, C. Kidd, and K. Conlon, “Inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide reduces heart rate variability in the anaesthetised dog,” Experimental Physiology, vol. 86, no. 5, pp. 539–541, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. H. Pekdemir, D. Cicek, A. Camsari et al., “The relationship between plasma endothelin-1, nitric oxide levels, and heart rate variability in patients with coronary slow flow,” Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 24–33, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. C. Neves, S. Tufik, F. Chediek et al., “Effects of sildenafil on autonomic nervous function during sleep in obstructive sleep apnea,” Clinics, vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 393–400, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. S. Chowdhary, S. L. Nuttall, J. H. Coote, and J. N. Townend, “L-arginine augments cardiac vagal control in healthy human subjects,” Hypertension, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 51–56, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. A. N. Buch, S. Chowdhary, J. H. Coote, and J. N. Townend, “Effects of nitroglycerin treatment on cardiac autonomic control in heart failure,” Clinical Autonomic Research, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 9–14, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. P. F. Binkley, E. Nunziatta, Y. Liu-Stratton, and G. Cooke, “A polymorphism of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase promoter is associated with an increase in autonomic imbalance in patients with congestive heart failure,” American Heart Journal, vol. 149, no. 2, pp. 342–348, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. B. M. Silva, F. J. Neves, M. V. Negrão et al., “Endothelial nitric oxide synthase polymorphisms and adaptation of parasympathetic modulation to exercise training,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 43, no. 9, pp. 1611–1618, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. F. Desjardins, I. Lobysheva, M. Pelat et al., “Control of blood pressure variability in caveolin-1-deficient mice: role of nitric oxide identified in vivo through spectral analysis,” Cardiovascular Research, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 527–536, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. S. Chowdhary, G. A. Ng, S. L. Nuttall, J. H. Coote, H. F. Ross, and J. N. Townend, “Nitric oxide and cardiac parasympathetic control in human heart failure,” Clinical Science, vol. 102, no. 4, pp. 397–402, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. H. C. Souza, J. E. Araújo, M. C. Martins-Pinge, I. C. Cozza, and D. P. Martins-Dias, “Nitric oxide synthesis blockade reduced the baroreflex sensitivity in trained rats,” Autonomic Neuroscience, vol. 150, no. 1-2, pp. 38–44, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. M. Chaswal, S. Das, J. Prasad, A. Katyal, and M. Fahim, “Cardiac autonomic function in acutely nitric oxide deficient hypertensive rats: role of the sympathetic nervous system and oxidative stress,” Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, vol. 89, no. 12, pp. 865–874, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. R. B. Mastelari, H. C. Souza, A. Lenhard, F. M. de Aguiar Corrêa, and M. C. Martins-Pinge, “Nitric oxide inhibition in paraventricular nucleus on cardiovascular and autonomic modulation after exercise training in unanesthetized rats,” Brain Research, vol. 1375, pp. 68–76, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus