Table of Contents
ISRN Biodiversity
Volume 2014, Article ID 680102, 12 pages
Research Article

Diversity, Uses, and Threats in the Ghodaghodi Lake Complex, a Ramsar Site in Western Lowland Nepal

1Himalayan Geo-En. Pvt. Ltd., 133 Mokshya Marga, Kathmandu 4, Nepal
2Kathmandu University, P.O. Box 6250, Dhulikhel, Nepal
3University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia

Received 1 February 2014; Accepted 23 March 2014; Published 27 April 2014

Academic Editors: A. R. Atangana, I. Bisht, A. Chistoserdov, P. De los Ríos Escalante, and P. M. Vergara

Copyright © 2014 Pramod Lamsal et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This study documents aquatic and terrestrial/riparian biodiversity in an anthropogenically disturbed Ramsar site, the Ghodaghodi Lake complex, in the Western Nepal surveyed during the summer season (March-April) of 2007. The study site comprises three major interconnected lakes: Ghodaghodi (138 ha), Nakharodi (70 ha), and Bainshwa (10 ha). Five transect lines for aquatic macrophytes and three transect lines and 37 sampling plots were laid to sample terrestrial/riparian plants, birds, and animals. Five sample plots were established for fish and aquatic bird. A total of 45 species of aquatic macrophytes, 54 species of terrestrial/riparian vegetation, 19 fish species, 41 bird species, 17 mammals (endangered and vulnerable), and 5 reptiles (critically endangered, vulnerable, and near threatened) were recorded at the lake complex. Local people have used most of the aquatic and terrestrial plants for different purposes while many of the potential medicinal plant species were still untapped. Persistent anthropogenic threats, like excessive harvesting and poaching, habitat destruction—population pressure, forest fragmentation, siltation, fertilizer and pesticide seepage, water pollution, overgrazing, and unmanaged irrigation system found over the lake complex, endangered the existing biodiversity. The suggested remedial measures are further exploration of medicinal potential, prioritization of in situ biodiversity conservation strategies, and implementation of awareness program at local level against anthropogenic threats.