Table of Contents
ISRN Oncology
Volume 2014, Article ID 694591, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/694591
Research Article

Racial Disparities in Survival and Age-Related Outcome in Postsurgery Breast Cancer Patients in a New York City Community Hospital

1Department of Surgery, The Brooklyn Hospital Center, 121 Dekalb Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11201, USA
2Department of Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Center City Campus, 111 South 11th Street, PA 19107, USA
3Department of Surgery, Westchester Medical Center, New York Medical College, 100 Woods Road, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA

Received 4 December 2013; Accepted 23 December 2013; Published 12 February 2014

Academic Editors: G. Gatti, K. van Golen, and T. Yokoe

Copyright © 2014 Stacey Martindale et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. Breast Cancer Facts and Figures 2009-2010, American Cancer Society.
  2. M. Kalager, T. Haldorsen, M. Bretthauer, G. Hoff, S. O. Thoresen, and H.-O. Adami, “Improved breast cancer survival following introduction of an organized mammography screening program among both screened and unscreened women: a population-based cohort study,” Breast Cancer Research, vol. 11, no. 4, article R44, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. H. Shigematsu, H. Kawaguchi, Y. Nakamura et al., “Significant survival improvement of patients with recurrent breast cancer in the periods 2001–2008 vs. 1992–2000,” BMC Cancer, vol. 11, article 118, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. B. D. Smith, B. G. Haffty, A. Hurria, D. H. Galusha, and C. P. Gross, “Postmastectomy radiation and survival in older women with breast cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 24, no. 30, pp. 4901–4907, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. L. Lepeak, A. Tevaarwerk, N. Jones, A. Williamson, J. Cetnar, and N. LoConte, “Persistence in breast cancer disparities between African Americans and whites in Wisconsin,” Wisconsin Medical Journal, vol. 110, no. 1, pp. 21–25, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. N. Howlader, A. M. Noone, M. Krapcho et al., Eds., SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975–2008, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Md, USA, 2010.
  7. R. T. Chlebowski, Z. Chen, G. L. Anderson et al., “Ethnicity and breast cancer: factors influencing differences in incidence and outcome,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 97, no. 6, pp. 439–447, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. L. A. Newman, J. Mason, D. Cote et al., “African-American ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and breast cancer survival: a meta-analysis of 14 studies involving over 10,000 African-American and 40,000 white American patients with carcinoma of the breast,” Cancer, vol. 94, no. 11, pp. 2844–2854, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. S. Whitman, D. Ansell, J. Orsi, and T. Francois, “The racial disparity in breast cancer mortality,” Journal of Community Health, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 588–596, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. I. K. Komenaka, M. E. Martinez, R. E. Pennington Jr. et al., “Race and ethnicity and breast cancer outcomes in an underinsured population,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 102, no. 15, pp. 1178–1187, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. S. Haas, C. C. Earle, J. E. Orav, P. Brawarsky, B. A. Neville, and D. R. Williams, “Racial segregation and disparities in cancer stage for seniors,” Journal of General Internal Medicine, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 699–705, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. C. I. Li, K. E. Malone, and J. R. Daling, “Differences in breast cancer hormone receptor status and histology by race and ethnicity among women 50 years of age and older,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 601–607, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. A. Joslyn, “Hormone receptors in breast cancer: racial differences in distribution and survival,” Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 45–59, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. R. M. Elledge, G. M. Clark, G. C. Chamness, and C. K. Osborne, “Tumor biologic factors and breast cancer prognosis among white, Hispanic, and black women in the United States,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 86, no. 9, pp. 705–712, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. L. P. Middleton, V. Chen, G. H. Perkins, V. Pinn, and D. Page, “Histopathology of breast cancer among African-American women,” Cancer, vol. 97, no. 1, pp. 253–257, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. N. Trivedi, A. M. Zaslavsky, E. C. Schneider, and J. Z. Ayanian, “Trends in the quality of care and racial disparities in medicare managed care,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 353, no. 7, pp. 692–700, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. H. Kim, J. Ferrante, B. R. Won, and M. Hameed, “Barriers to adequate follow-up during adjuvant therapy may be important factors in the worse outcome for Black women after breast cancer treatment,” World Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol. 6, article 26, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. C. M. Tammemagi, D. Nerenz, C. Neslund-Dudas, C. Feldkamp, and D. Nathanson, “Comorbidity and survival disparities among black and white patients with breast cancer,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 294, no. 14, pp. 1765–1772, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. Purdom, M. L. Cibull, T. D. Stratton et al., “Should histologic grade be incorporated into the TNM classification system for small (T1, T2) node-negative breast adenocarcinomas?” Pathology Research International, vol. 2011, Article ID 825627, 4 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. A. Nasir, D. T. Chen, M. Gruidl et al., “Novel molecular markers of malignancy in histologically normal and benign breast,” Pathology Research International, vol. 2011, Article ID 489064, 18 pages, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  21. M. Kalager, T. Haldorsen, M. Bretthauer, G. Hoff, S. O. Thoresen, and H.-O. Adami, “Improved breast cancer survival following introduction of an organized mammography screening program among both screened and unscreened women: a population-based cohort study,” Breast Cancer Research, vol. 11, no. 4, article R44, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. P. J. Klemi, I. Parvinen, L. Pylkkänen et al., “Significant improvement in breast cancer survival through population-based mammography screening,” Breast, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 308–313, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. A. Adams, E. R. Smith, J. Hardin, I. Prabhu-Das, J. Fulton, and J. R. Hebert, “Racial differences in follow-up of abnormal mammography findings among economically disadvantaged women,” Cancer, vol. 115, no. 24, pp. 5788–5797, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. L. K. Dunnwald, M. A. Rossing, and C. I. Li, “Hormone receptor status, tumor characteristics, and prognosis: a prospective cohort of breast cancer patients,” Breast Cancer Research, vol. 9, no. 1, article R6, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. N. Bulut, S. Aksoy, O. Dizdar et al., “Demographic and clinico-pathological characteristics in patients with triple-negative and non-triple-negative breast cancer,” Medical Oncology, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. S75–S79, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. E. R. Fisher, C. Kent Osborne, and W. L. McGuire, “Correlation of primary breast cancer histopathology and estrogen receptor content,” Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 37–41, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. P. V. Maynard, C. J. Davies, R. W. Blamey, C. W. Elston, J. Johnson, and K. Griffiths, “Relationship between oestrogen-receptor content and histological grade in human primary breast tumours,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 745–748, 1978. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. T. C. Putti, D. M. Abd El-Rehim, E. A. Rakha et al., “Estrogen receptor-negative breast carcinomas: a review of morphology and immunophenotypical analysis,” Modern Pathology, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 26–35, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. E. A. Rakha, J. S. Reis-Filho, F. Baehner et al., “Breast cancer prognostic classification in the molecular era: the role of histological grade,” Breast Cancer Research, vol. 12, no. 4, article 207, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. I. A. Olivotto, C. D. Bajdik, I. H. Plenderleith et al., “Adjuvant systemic therapy and survival after breast cancer,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 330, no. 12, pp. 805–810, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. S. K. Chia, C. H. Speers, Y. D'Yachkova et al., “The impact of new chemotherapeutic and hormone agents on survival in a population-based cohort of women with metastatic breast cancer,” Cancer, vol. 110, no. 5, pp. 973–979, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. V. Vinh-Hung, T. Burzykowski, J. Van De Steene, G. Storme, and G. Soete, “Post-surgery radiation in early breast cancer: survival analysis of registry data,” Radiotherapy and Oncology, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 281–290, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. D. G. Kirsch, C. J. Ledezma, C. S. Mathews et al., “Survival after brain metastases from breast cancer in the trastuzumab era,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 2114–2116, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. H. Riahi Idrissi, C. Chargari, M. A. Bollet et al., “Concurrent whole-brain radiotherapy with trastuzumab for treatment of brain metastases in breast cancer patients: questions and answers—Institut Curie experience and revue of the literature,” Bulletin du Cancer, vol. 98, no. 4, pp. 425–432, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. R. C. Burton, R. J. Bell, G. Thiagarajah, and C. Stevenson, “Adjuvant therapy, not mammographic screening, accounts for most of the observed breast cancer specific mortality reductions in Australian women since the national screening program began in 1991,” Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, vol. 131, no. 3, pp. 949–955, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. P. Autier, M. Boniol, A. Gavin, and L. J. Vatten, “Breast cancer mortality in neighbouring European countries with different levels of screening but similar access to treatment: trend analysis of WHO mortality database,” British Medical Journal, vol. 343, p. d4411, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. Hirschman, S. Whitman, and D. Ansell, “The black:white disparity in breast cancer mortality: the example of Chicago,” Cancer Causes and Control, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 323–333, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. G. J. Morris and E. P. Mitchell, “Higher incidence of aggressive breast cancers in African-American women: a review,” Journal of the National Medical Association, vol. 100, no. 6, pp. 698–702, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. L. J. Short, M. D. Fisher, P. M. Wahl et al., “Disparities in medical care among commercially insured patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer: opportunities for intervention,” Cancer, vol. 116, no. 1, pp. 193–202, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. N. Natarajan, T. Nemoto, C. Mettlin, and G. P. Murphy, “Race-related differences in breast cancer patients. Results of the 1982 national survey of breast cancer by the American College of Surgeons,” Cancer, vol. 56, no. 7, pp. 1704–1709, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. L. A. Newman, K. A. Griffith, I. Jatoi, M. S. Simon, J. P. Crowe, and G. A. Colditz, “Meta-analysis of survival in African American and white American patients with breast cancer: ethnicity compared with socioeconomic status,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 1342–1349, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. A. D. Deshpande, D. B. Jeffe, J. Gnerlich, A. Z. Iqbal, A. Thummalakunta, and J. A. Margenthaler, “Racial disparities in breast cancer survival: an analysis by age and stage,” Journal of Surgical Research, vol. 153, no. 1, pp. 105–113, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. 2009 National Healthcare Quality Report from US department of Health and Human Services Office of Minority Health.
  44. Gallup-Healthways Well-Being Index, 2011.
  45. M. P. Cleary, M. E. Grossmann, and A. Ray, “Effect of obesity on breast cancer development,” Veterinary Pathology, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 202–213, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. A. R. Carmichael, “Obesity as a risk factor for development and poor prognosis of breast cancer,” International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 113, no. 10, pp. 1160–1166, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. M. Ewertz, M. B. Jensen, K. Á. Gunnarsdóttir et al., “Effect of obesity on prognosis after early-stage breast cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 25–31, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  48. S. Loi, R. L. Milne, M. L. Friedlander et al., “Obesity and outcomes in premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 1686–1691, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. J. Tan, E. Buache, M.-P. Chenard, N. Dali-Youcef, and M.-C. Rio, “Adipocyte is a non-trivial, dynamic partner of breast cancer cells,” International Journal of Developmental Biology, vol. 55, no. 7–9, pp. 851–859, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. F. A. Sinicrope and A. J. Dannenberg, “Obesity and breast cancer prognosis: weight of the evidence,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 4–7, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. J. D. Yager and N. E. Davidson, “Estrogen carcinogenesis in breast cancer,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 354, no. 3, pp. 228–282, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. J. B. Barnett, M. N. Woods, B. Rosner et al., “Sex hormone levels in premenopausal African-American women with upper and lower body fat phenotypes,” Nutrition and Cancer, vol. 41, no. 1-2, pp. 47–56, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. M. Kacem, M. Awatef, L. Amel, M. Jihen, and B. A. Slim, “Effect of obesity at the pathologic response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy among premenopausal Tunisian women with breast cancer,” Obesity, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. T. Sørlie, C. M. Perou, R. Tibshirani et al., “Gene expression patterns of breast carcinomas distinguish tumor subclasses with clinical implications,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 98, no. 19, pp. 10869–10874, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. J. C. Sachdev, S. Ahmed, M. M. Mirza, A. Farooq, L. Kronish, and M. Jahanzeb, “Does race affect outcomes in triple negative breast cancer?” Breast Cancer: Basic and Clinical Research, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 23–33, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. L. A. Carey, C. M. Perou, C. A. Livasy et al., “Race, breast cancer subtypes, and survival in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 295, no. 21, pp. 2492–2502, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. L. A. Stead, T. L. Lash, J. E. Sobieraj et al., “Triple-negative breast cancers are increased in black women regardless of age or body mass index,” Breast Cancer Research, vol. 11, no. 2, article R18, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. R. Demicheli, M. W. Retsky, W. J. M. Hrushesky, M. Baum, I. D. Gukas, and I. Jatoi, “Racial disparities in breast cancer outcome: insights into host-tumor interactions,” Cancer, vol. 110, no. 9, pp. 1880–1888, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. W. F. Anderson, I. Jatoi, and S. S. Devesa, “Distinct breast cancer incidence and prognostic patterns in the NCI's SEER program: suggesting a possible link between etiology and outcome,” Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, vol. 90, no. 2, pp. 127–137, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. W. F. Anderson and R. Matsuno, “Breast cancer heterogeneity: a mixture of at least two main types?” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 98, no. 14, pp. 948–951, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. M. J. Lund, M. Mosunjac, K. M. Davis et al., “21-Gene recurrence scores: racial differences in testing, scores, treatment, and outcome,” Cancer, vol. 118, no. 3, pp. 788–796, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. A. V. Ivshina, J. George, O. Senko et al., “Genetic reclassification of histologic grade delineates new clinical subtypes of breast cancer,” Cancer Research, vol. 66, no. 21, pp. 10292–10301, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus