Table of Contents
ISRN Nanotechnology
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 939378, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/939378
Review Article

Nanotechnology in Cancer Drug Delivery and Selective Targeting

Department of Pharmacy, Stamford University Bangladesh, 51 Siddeswari Road, Dhaka 1217, Bangladesh

Received 24 September 2013; Accepted 28 October 2013; Published 16 January 2014

Academic Editors: C. Alexiou, H. Duan, and I. H. El-Sayed

Copyright © 2014 Kumar Bishwajit Sutradhar and Md. Lutful Amin. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. J. Bharali and S. A. Mousa, “Emerging nanomedicines for early cancer detection and improved treatment: current perspective and future promise,” Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 128, no. 2, pp. 324–335, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. G. Zhao and B. L. Rodriguez, “Molecular targeting of liposomal nanoparticlesto tumor microenvironment,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 8, pp. 61–71, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  3. N. R. Jabir, S. Tabrez, G. M. Ashraf, S. Shakil, G. A. Damanhouri, and M. A. Kamal, “Nanotechnology-based approaches in anticancer research,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 7, pp. 4391–4408, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  4. S. A. Mousa and D. J. Bharali, “Nanotechnology-based detection and targeted therapy in cancer: nano-bio paradigms and applications,” Cancers, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 2888–2903, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. D. Peer, J. M. Karp, S. Hong, O. C. Farokhzad, R. Margalit, and R. Langer, “Nanocarriers as an emerging platform for cancer therapy,” Nature Nanotechnology, vol. 2, no. 12, pp. 751–760, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. Y. Malam, M. Loizidou, and A. M. Seifalian, “Liposomes and nanoparticles: nanosized vehicles for drug delivery in cancer,” Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, vol. 30, no. 11, pp. 592–599, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. K. B. Sutradhar and M. L. Amin, “Nanoemulsions: increasing possibilities in drug delivery,” European Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 97–110, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  8. N. P. Praetorius and T. K. Mandal, “Engineered nanoparticles in cancer therapy,” Recent Patents on Drug Delivery & Formulation, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 37–51, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. K. Park, “Nanotechnology: what it can do for drug delivery,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 120, no. 1-2, pp. 1–3, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. L. A. Nagahara, J. S. H. Lee, L. K. Molnar et al., “Strategic workshops on cancer nanotechnology,” Cancer Research, vol. 70, no. 11, pp. 4265–4268, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. K. T. Nguyen, “Targeted nanoparticles for cancer therapy: promises and challenges,” Journal of Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology, vol. 2, no. 5, article 103e, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. A. Coates, S. Abraham, and S. B. Kaye, “On the receiving end—patient perception of the side-effects of cancer chemotherapy,” European Journal of Cancer and Clinical Oncology, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 203–208, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. I. F. Tannock, C. M. Lee, J. K. Tunggal, D. S. M. Cowan, and M. J. Egorin, “Limited penetration of anticancer drugs through tumor tissue: a potential cause of resistance of solid tumors to chemotherapy,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 878–884, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. R. Krishna and L. D. Mayer, “Multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancerMechanisms, reversal using modulators of MDR and the role of MDR modulators in influencing the pharmacokinetics of anticancer drugs,” European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 265–283, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. Links and R. Brown, “Clinical relevance of the molecular mechanisms of resistance to anti-cancer drugs,” Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine, vol. 1999, pp. 1–21, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  16. M. M. Gottesman, C. A. Hrycyna, P. V. Schoenlein, U. A. Germann, and I. Pastan, “Genetic analysis of the multidrug transporter,” Annual Review of Genetics, vol. 29, pp. 607–649, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. E. Davis, Z. Chen, and D. M. Shin, “Nanoparticle therapeutics: an emerging treatment modality for cancer,” Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, vol. 7, no. 9, pp. 771–782, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. X. Guo and F. C. Szoka Jr., “Chemical approaches to triggerable lipid vesicles for drug and gene delivery,” Accounts of Chemical Research, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 335–341, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. Nie, Y. Xing, G. J. Kim, and J. W. Simons, “Nanotechnology applications in cancer,” Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering, vol. 9, pp. 257–288, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  20. K. Cho, X. Wang, S. Nie, Z. Chen, and D. M. Shin, “Therapeutic nanoparticles for drug delivery in cancer,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 1310–1316, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. V. Yezhelyev, X. Gao, Y. Xing, A. Al-Hajj, S. Nie, and R. M. O'Regan, “Emerging use of nanoparticles in diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer,” Lancet Oncology, vol. 7, no. 8, pp. 657–667, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. R. Duncan, “Polymer conjugates as anticancer nanomedicines,” Nature Reviews Cancer, vol. 6, no. 9, pp. 688–701, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. Ferrari, “Cancer nanotechnology: opportunities and challenges,” Nature Reviews Cancer, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 161–171, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. D. A. LaVan, T. McGuire, and R. Langer, “Small-scale systems for in vivo drug delivery,” Nature Biotechnology, vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 1184–1191, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. I. Brigger, C. Dubernet, and P. Couvreur, “Nanoparticles in cancer therapy and diagnosis,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 631–651, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. S. I. Jeon, J. H. Lee, J. D. Andrade, and P. G. De Gennes, “Protein-surface interactions in the presence of polyethylene oxide. I. Simplified theory,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 142, no. 1, pp. 149–158, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. P. Tallury, S. Kar, S. Bamrungsap, Y.-F. Huang, W. Tan, and S. Santra, “Ultra-small water-dispersible fluorescent chitosan nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization and specific targeting,” Chemical Communications, vol. 17, pp. 2347–2349, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. F. Francis, M. Cristea, and F. M. Winnik, “Polymeric micelles for oral drug delivery: why and how,” Pure and Applied Chemistry, vol. 76, no. 7-8, pp. 1321–1335, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. G. Storm, S. O. Belliot, T. Daemen, and D. D. Lasic, “Surface modification of nanoparticles to oppose uptake by the mononuclear phagocyte system,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 31–48, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. V. P. Torchilin and V. S. Trubetskoy, “Which polymers can make nanoparticulate drug carriers long-circulating?” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 16, no. 2-3, pp. 141–155, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. G. A. Mansoori, P. Mohazzabi, P. McCormack, and S. Jabbari, “Nanotechnology in cancer prevention, detection and treatment: bright future lies ahead,” World Review of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, vol. 4, no. 2-3, pp. 226–257, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. J. Sudimack and R. J. Lee, “Targeted drug delivery via the folate receptor,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 147–162, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. J. F. Kukowska-Latallo, K. A. Candido, Z. Cao et al., “Nanoparticle targeting of anticancer drug improves therapeutic response in animal model of human epithelial cancer,” Cancer Research, vol. 65, no. 12, pp. 5317–5324, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. G. Russell-Jones, K. McTavish, J. McEwan, and B. Thurmond, “Increasing the tumoricidal activity of daunomycin-pHPMA conjugates using vitamin B12 as a targeting agent,” Journal of Cancer Research Updates, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 1–6, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  35. G. L. Zwicke, G. A. Mansoori, and C. J. Jeffery, “Utilizing the folate receptor for active targeting of cancer nanotherapeutics,” Nano Reviews, vol. 3, Article ID 18496, 3 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. H. S. Yoo and T. G. Park, “Folate-receptor-targeted delivery of doxorubicin nano-aggregates stabilized by doxorubicin-PEG-folate conjugate,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 100, no. 2, pp. 247–256, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. Kawamoto, T. Horibe, M. Kohno, and K. Kawakami, “A novel transferrin receptor-targeted hybrid peptide disintegrates cancer cell membrane to induce rapid killing of cancer cells,” BMC Cancer, vol. 11, article 359, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. T. R. Daniels, B. Bernabeu, J. A. Rodríguez et al., “Transferrin receptors and the targeted delivery of therapeutic agents against cancer,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1820, no. 3, pp. 291–317, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  39. N. C. Bellocq, S. H. Pun, G. S. Jensen, and M. E. Davis, “Transferrin-containing, cyclodextrin polymer-based particles for tumor-targeted gene delivery,” Bioconjugate Chemistry, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1122–1132, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. C. R. Dass and P. F. M. Choong, “Targeting of small molecule anticancer drugs to the tumour and its vasculature using cationic liposomes: lessons from gene therapy,” Cancer Cell International, vol. 6, article 17, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. H. K. Sun, H. J. Ji, H. L. Soo, W. K. Sung, and G. P. Tae, “LHRH receptor-mediated delivery of siRNA using polyelectrolyte complex micelles self-assembled from siRNA-PEG-LHRH conjugate and PEI,” Bioconjugate Chemistry, vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 2156–2162, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. S. S. Dharap, Y. Wang, P. Chandna et al., “Tumor-specific targeting of an anticancer drug delivery system by LHRH peptide,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 102, no. 36, pp. 12962–12967, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2006/prostate.html.
  44. T. M. Allen, “Ligand-targeted therapeutics in anticancer therapy,” Nature Reviews Cancer, vol. 2, no. 10, pp. 750–763, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. P. Carter, “Improving the efficacy of antibody-based cancer therapies,” Nature Reviews Cancer, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 118–129, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. W. H. Ouwehand, R. Finnern, B. D. Gorick et al., “Selection of internalizing antibodies for drug delivery,” Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 248, pp. 201–208, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  47. J. D. Marks, W. H. Ouwehand, J. M. Bye et al., “Human antibody fragments specific for human blood group antigens from a phage display library,” Bio/Technology, vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 1145–1149, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. B. Liu, F. Conrad, M. R. Cooperberg, D. B. Kirpotin, and J. D. Marks, “Mapping tumor epitope space by direct selection of single-chain Fv antibody libraries on prostate cancer cells,” Cancer Research, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 704–710, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. D. Peer, P. Zhu, C. V. Carman, J. Lieberman, and M. Shimaoka, “Selective gene silencing in activated leukocytes by targeting siRNAs to the integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 104, no. 10, pp. 4095–4100, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. H. Wartlick, K. Michaelis, S. Balthasar, K. Strebhardt, J. Kreuter, and K. Langer, “Highly specific HER2-mediated cellular uptake of antibody-modified nanoparticles in tumour cells,” Journal of Drug Targeting, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 461–471, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. S. Sudarshan, D. H. Holman, M. L. Hyer, C. Voelkel-Johnson, J.-Y. Dong, and J. S. Norris, “In vitro efficacy of Fas ligand gene therapy for the treatment of bladder cancer,” Cancer Gene Therapy, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 12–18, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. O. Micheau, E. Solary, A. Hammann, F. Martin, and M.-T. Dimanche-Boitrel, “Sensitization of cancer cells treated with cytotoxic drugs to fas-mediated cytotoxicity,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 89, no. 11, pp. 783–789, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. G. N. Naumov, L. A. Akslen, and J. Folkman, “Role of angiogenesis in human tumor dormancy: animal models of the angiogenic switch,” Cell Cycle, vol. 5, no. 16, pp. 1779–1787, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. M. A. J. Chaplain, “Mathematical modelling of angiogenesis,” Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol. 50, no. 1-2, pp. 37–51, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. J. Folkman, “Incipient angiogenesis,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 94–95, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. N. Weidner, J. Folkman, F. Pozza et al., “Tumor angiogenesis: a new significant and independent prognostic indicator in early-stage breast carcinoma,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 84, no. 24, pp. 1875–1887, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. D. Fukumura and R. K. Jain, “Imaging angiogenesis and the microenvironment,” APMIS, vol. 116, no. 7-8, pp. 695–715, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. M. Dhanabal, M. Jeffers, and W. J. LaRochelle, “Anti-angiogenic therapy as a cancer treatment paradigm,” Current Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 115–130, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. N. Weidner, J. P. Semple, W. R. Welch, and J. Folkman, “Tumor angiogenesis and metastasis—correlation in invasive breast carcinoma,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 324, no. 1, pp. 1–8, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. J. Folkman, “Fundamental concepts of the angiogenic process,” Current Molecular Medicine, vol. 3, no. 7, pp. 643–651, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. D. Banerjee, R. Harfouche, and S. Sengupta, “Nanotechnology-mediated targeting of tumor angiogenesis,” Vascular Cell, vol. 3, article 3, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. N. Boudreau and C. Myers, “Breast cancer-induced angiogenesis: multiple mechanisms and the role of the microenvironment,” Breast Cancer Research, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 140–146, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. N. N. Khodarev, J. Yu, E. Labay et al., “Tumour-endothelium interactions in co-culture: coordinated changes of gene expression profiles and phenotypic properties of endothelial cells,” Journal of Cell Science, vol. 116, no. 6, pp. 1013–1022, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. J. S. Desgrosellier and D. A. Cheresh, “Integrins in cancer: biological implications and therapeutic opportunities,” Nature Reviews Cancer, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 9–22, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. Y. Pan, H. Ding, L. Qin, X. Zhao, J. Cai, and B. Du, “Gold nanoparticles induce nanostructural reorganization of VEGFR2 to repress angiogenesis,” Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology, vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 1746–1756, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  66. S. A. Anderson, R. K. Rader, W. F. Westlin et al., “Magnetic resonance contrast enhancement of neovasculature with alpha(v)beta(3)-targeted nanoparticles,” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, vol. 44, pp. 433–439, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  67. J. H. Park, S. Kwon, J.-O. Nam et al., “Self-assembled nanoparticles based on glycol chitosan bearing 5β-cholanic acid for RGD peptide delivery,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 95, no. 3, pp. 579–588, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. E. A. Waters, J. Chen, X. Yang et al., “Detection of targeted perfluorocarbon nanoparticle binding using 19F diffusion weighted MR spectroscopy,” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, vol. 60, no. 5, pp. 1232–1236, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. P. M. Winter, A. M. Morawski, S. D. Caruthers et al., “Molecular imaging of angiogenesis in early-stage atherosclerosis with αvβ3-integrin-targeted nanoparticles,” Circulation, vol. 108, no. 18, pp. 2270–2274, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. J. Li, J. Ji, L. M. Holmes et al., “Fusion protein from RGD peptide and Fc fragment of mouse immunoglobulin G inhibits angiogenesis in tumor,” Cancer Gene Therapy, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 363–370, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. E. Ruoslahti, “Cell adhesion and tumor metastasis,” Princess Takamatsu Symposia, vol. 24, pp. 99–105, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. N. Ferrara, “VEGF as a therapeutic target in cancer,” Oncology, vol. 69, no. 3, pp. 11–16, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. D. F. Baban and L. W. Seymour, “Control of tumour vascular permeability,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 109–119, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. S. K. Hobbs, W. L. Monsky, F. Yuan et al., “Regulation of transport pathways in tumor vessels: role of tumor type and microenvironment,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 95, no. 8, pp. 4607–4612, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. P. Rubin and G. Casarett, “Microcirculation of tumors Part I: anatomy, function, and necrosis,” Clinical Radiology, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 220–229, 1966. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. P. Shubik, “Vascularization of tumors: a review,” Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology, vol. 103, no. 3, pp. 211–226, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. R. K. Jain and T. Stylianopoulos, “Delivering nanomedicine to solid tumors,” Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology, vol. 7, no. 11, pp. 653–664, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. S. H. Jang, M. G. Wientjes, D. Lu, and J. L.-S. Au, “Drug delivery and transport to solid tumors,” Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 1337–1350, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. H. Maeda, “The enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect in tumor vasculature: the key role of tumor-selective macromolecular drug targeting,” Advances in Enzyme Regulation, vol. 41, pp. 189–207, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. H. Maeda, J. Wu, T. Sawa, Y. Matsumura, and K. Hori, “Tumor vascular permeability and the EPR effect in macromolecular therapeutics: a review,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 65, no. 1-2, pp. 271–284, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. F. Yuan, “Transvascular drug delivery in solid tumors,” Seminars in Radiation Oncology, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 164–175, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. http://www.pharmainfo.net/reviews/nanotechnology-review-revolution-cancer-treatment.
  83. G. Barratt, “Colloidal drug carriers: achievements and perspectives,” Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 21–37, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. E. M. Gordon and F. L. Hall, “Nanotechnology blooms, at last,” Oncology Reports, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 1003–1007, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2010/nanoparticle-chemotherapy-1005.html.
  86. A. K. Patri, J. F. Kukowska-Latallo, and J. R. Baker Jr., “Targeted drug delivery with dendrimers: comparison of the release kinetics of covalently conjugated drug and non-covalent drug inclusion complex,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 57, no. 15, pp. 2203–2214, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. N. Desai, “Challenges in development of nanoparticle-based therapeutics,” The AAPS Journal, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 282–294, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  88. C. E. Soma, C. Dubernet, D. Bentolila, S. Benita, and P. Couvreur, “Reversion of multidrug resistance by co-encapsulation of doxorubicin and cyclosporin A in polyalkylcyanoacrylate nanoparticles,” Biomaterials, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. M. L. Amin, “P-glycoprotein inhibition for optimal drug delivery,” Drug Target Insights, vol. 7, pp. 27–34, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  90. H. Matsuo, M. Wakasugi, H. Takanaga et al., “Possibility of the reversal of multidrug resistance and the avoidance of side effects by liposomes modified with MRK-16, a monoclonal antibody to P-glycoprotein,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 77, no. 1-2, pp. 77–86, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. S. Danson, D. Ferry, V. Alakhov et al., “Phase I dose escalation and pharmacokinetic study of pluronic polymer-bound doxorubicin (SP1049C) in patients with advanced cancer,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 90, no. 11, pp. 2085–2091, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. E. V. Batrakova, T. Y. Dorodnych, E. Y. Klinskii et al., “Anthracycline antibiotics non-covalently incorporated into the block copolymer micelles: in vivo evaluation of anti-cancer activity,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 74, no. 10, pp. 1545–1552, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. D. Goren, A. T. Horowitz, D. Tzemach, M. Tarshish, S. Zalipsky, and A. Gabizon, “Nuclear delivery of doxorubicin via folate-targeted liposomes with bypass of multidrug-resistance efflux pump,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 1949–1957, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. J. Kos, N. Obermajer, B. Doljak, P. Kocbek, and J. Kristl, “Inactivation of harmful tumour-associated proteolysis by nanoparticulate system,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 381, no. 2, pp. 106–112, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. A. Cirstoiu-Hapca, F. Buchegger, L. Bossy, M. Kosinski, R. Gurny, and F. Delie, “Nanomedicines for active targeting: physico-chemical characterization of paclitaxel-loaded anti-HER2 immunonanoparticles and in vitro functional studies on target cells,” European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 230–237, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. Y. B. Patil, U. S. Toti, A. Khdair, L. Ma, and J. Panyam, “Single-step surface functionalization of polymeric nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery,” Biomaterials, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 859–866, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. W. Yang, Y. Cheng, T. Xu, X. Wang, and L.-P. Wen, “Targeting cancer cells with biotin-dendrimer conjugates,” European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 862–868, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. Y. Liu, K. Li, J. Pan, B. Liu, and S.-S. Feng, “Folic acid conjugated nanoparticles of mixed lipid monolayer shell and biodegradable polymer core for targeted delivery of Docetaxel,” Biomaterials, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 330–338, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. O. Taratula, O. B. Garbuzenko, P. Kirkpatrick et al., “Surface-engineered targeted PPI dendrimer for efficient intracellular and intratumoral siRNA delivery,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 140, no. 3, pp. 284–293, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. Y. Patil, T. Sadhukha, L. Ma, and J. Panyam, “Nanoparticle-mediated simultaneous and targeted delivery of paclitaxel and tariquidar overcomes tumor drug resistance,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 136, no. 1, pp. 21–29, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. E. Brewer, J. Coleman, and A. Lowman, “Emerging technologies of polymeric nanoparticles in cancer drug delivery,” Journal of Nanomaterials, vol. 2011, Article ID 408675, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. C. C. Anajwala, G. K. Jani, and S. M. V. Swamy, “Current trends of nanotechnology for cancer therapy,” International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Nanotechnology, vol. 3, pp. 1043–1056, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  103. B. Haley and E. Frenkel, “Nanoparticles for drug delivery in cancer treatment,” Urologic Oncology, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 57–64, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. D. Lasic, “Doxorubicin in sterically stabilized,” Nature, vol. 380, no. 6574, pp. 561–562, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. Y. Matsumura, T. Hamaguchi, T. Ura et al., “Phase I clinical trial and pharmacokinetic evaluation of NK911, a micelle-encapsulated doxorubicin,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 91, no. 10, pp. 1775–1781, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. J. Kreuter and T. Higuchi, “Improved delivery of methoxsalen,” Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 68, no. 4, pp. 451–454, 1979. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. D. Papahadjopoulos, T. M. Allen, A. Gabizon et al., “Sterically stabilized liposomes: improvements in pharmacokinetics and antitumor therapeutic efficacy,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 88, no. 24, pp. 11460–11464, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. D. Peer and R. Margalit, “Loading mitomycin C inside long circulating hyaluronan targeted nano-liposomes increases its antitumor activity in three mice tumor models,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 108, no. 5, pp. 780–789, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. R. E. Eliaz and F.C. Szoka Jr., “Liposome-encapsulated doxorubicin targeted to CD44: a strategy to kill CD44-overexpressing tumor cells,” Cancer Research, vol. 61, no. 6, pp. 2592–2601, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. S. R. Grobmyera, G. Zhoua, L. G. Gutweina, N. Iwakumab, P. Sharmac, and S. N. Hochwalda, “Nanoparticle delivery for metastatic breast cancer,” Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine, vol. 8, pp. S21–S30, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  111. Y. Liu, H. Miyoshi, and M. Nakamura, “Nanomedicine for drug delivery and imaging: a promising avenue for cancer therapy and diagnosis using targeted functional nanoparticles,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 120, no. 12, pp. 2527–2537, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. Y. Fukumori and H. Ichikawa, “Nanoparticles for cancer therapy and diagnosis,” Advanced Powder Technology, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 1–28, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. M. B. Yatvin, W. Kreutz, B. A. Horwitz, and M. Shinitzky, “pH-sensitive liposomes: possible clinical implications,” Science, vol. 210, no. 4475, pp. 1253–1255, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. S. K. Huang, P. R. Stauffer, K. Hong et al., “Liposomes and hyperthermia in mice: increased tumor uptake and therapeutic efficacy of doxorubicin in sterically stabilized liposomes,” Cancer Research, vol. 54, no. 8, pp. 2186–2191, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. E. S. Kawasaki and A. Player, “Nanotechnology, nanomedicine, and the development of new, effective therapies for cancer,” Nanomedicine, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 101–109, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. A. Z. Wang, R. Langer, and O. C. Farokhzad, “Nanoparticle delivery of cancer drugs,” Annual Review of Medicine, vol. 63, pp. 185–198, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. G. A. Hughes, “Nanostructure-mediated drug delivery,” Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine, vol. 1, pp. 22–30, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  118. S. M. Moghimi, A. C. Hunter, and J. C. Murray, “Nanomedicine: current status and future prospects,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 311–330, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. C. Kojima, K. Kono, K. Maruyama, and T. Takagishi, “Synthesis of polyamidoamine dendrimers having poly(ethylene glycol) grafts and their ability to encapsulate anticancer drugs,” Bioconjugate Chemistry, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 910–917, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. Z. Liu, K. Chen, C. Davis et al., “Drug delivery with carbon nanotubes for in vivo cancer treatment,” Cancer Research, vol. 68, no. 16, pp. 6652–6660, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  121. A. Bianco, K. Kostarelos, and M. Prato, “Applications of carbon nanotubes in drug delivery,” Current Opinion in Chemical Biology, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 674–679, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus