Table of Contents
International Scholarly Research Notices
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 958650, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/958650
Research Article

Impact of New Water Sources on the Overall Water Network: An Optimisation Approach

Department of Applied Mathematics, National University of Science & Technology, P.O. Box AC939 Ascot, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

Received 21 July 2014; Accepted 19 August 2014; Published 29 October 2014

Academic Editor: Francisco W. S. Lima

Copyright © 2014 Godfrey Chagwiza et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

A mathematical programming problem is formulated for a water network with new water sources included. Salinity and water hardness are considered in the model, which is later solved using the Max-Min Ant System (MMAS) to assess the impact of new water sources on the total cost of the existing network. It is efficient to include new water sources if the distances to them are short or if there is a high penalty associated with failure to meet demand. Desalination unit costs also significantly affect the decision whether to install new water sources into the existing network while softening costs are generally negligible in making such decisions. Experimental results show that, in the example considered, it is efficient to reduce number of desalination plants to remain with one central plant. The Max-Min Ant System algorithm seems to be an effective method as shown by least computational time as compared to the commercial solver Cplex.