Table of Contents
International Scholarly Research Notices
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 790186, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/790186
Research Article

High Risk Stage 2 and Stage 3 Colon Cancer, Predictors of Recurrence and Effect of Adjuvant Therapy in a Nonselected Population

Department of Internal Medicine, Zaans Medisch Centrum, 1015 ZW Zaandam, Netherlands

Received 24 March 2015; Accepted 19 May 2015

Academic Editor: Marilena Loizidou

Copyright © 2015 Elmer E. van Eeghen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. C. M. Rutter, E. A. Johnson, E. J. Feuer, A. B. Knudsen, K. M. Kuntz, and D. Schrag, “Secular trends in colon and rectal cancer relative survival,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 105, no. 23, pp. 1806–1813, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. Integraal Kankercentrum Nederland, 2014, http://www.iknl.nl/.
  3. C. G. Moertel, T. R. Fleming, J. S. Macdonald et al., “Levamisole and fluorouracil for adjuvant therapy of resected colon carcinoma,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 322, no. 6, pp. 352–358, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. S. Marsoni, “Efficacy of adjuvant fluorouracil and folinic acid in colon cancer,” The Lancet, vol. 345, no. 8955, pp. 939–944, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. T. André, C. Boni, L. Mounedji-Boudiaf et al., “Oxaliplatin, fluorouracil, and leucovorin as adjuvant treatment for colon cancer,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 350, no. 23, pp. 2343–2351, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. D. G. Haller, J. Tabernero, J. Maroun et al., “Capecitabine plus oxaliplatin compared with fluorouracil and folinic acid as adjuvant therapy for stage III colon cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 29, no. 11, pp. 1465–1471, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. P. Kuebler, H. S. Wieand, M. J. O'Connell et al., “Oxaliplatin combined with weekly bolus fluorouracil and leucovorin as surgical adjuvant chemotherapy for stage II and III colon cancer: results from NSABP C-07,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 25, no. 16, pp. 2198–2204, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. C. G. Moertel, T. R. Fleming, J. S. Macdonald et al., “Intergroup study of fluorouracil plus levamisole as adjuvant therapy for stage II/Dukes' B2 colon cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 2936–2943, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. W. Schippinger, H. Samonigg, R. Schaberl-Moser et al., “A prospective randomised phase III trial of adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin in patients with stage II colon cancer,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 97, no. 8, pp. 1021–1027, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. R. Gray, J. Barnwell, C. McConkey, R. K. Hills, N. S. Williams, and D. J. Kerr, “Adjuvant chemotherapy versus observation in patients with colorectal cancer: a randomised study,” The Lancet, vol. 370, no. 9604, pp. 2020–2029, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. McKenzie, R. Nelson, B. Mailey et al., “Adjuvant chemotherapy improves survival in patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer stage II colon cancer,” Cancer, vol. 117, no. 24, pp. 5493–5499, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. H.-M. Quah, J. F. Chou, M. Gonen et al., “Identification of patients with high-risk stage II colon cancer for adjuvant therapy,” Diseases of the Colon and Rectum, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 503–507, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. K. Yamaguchi, Y. Ogata, Y. Akagi, and K. Shirouzu, “Identification of high-risk factors as indicators for adjuvant therapy in stage II colon cancer patients treated at a single institution,” Oncology Letters, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 659–666, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. C. M. Ribic, D. J. Sargent, M. J. Moore et al., “Tumor microsatellite-instability status as a predictor of benefit from fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 349, no. 3, pp. 247–257, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. D. J. Sargent, S. Marsoni, G. Monges et al., “Defective mismatch repair as a predictive marker for lack of efficacy of fluorouracil-based adjuvant therapy in colon cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 28, no. 20, pp. 3219–3226, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. B. Benson III, D. Schrag, M. R. Somerfield et al., “American society of clinical oncology recommendations on adjuvant chemotherapy for stage II colon cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 22, no. 16, pp. 3408–3419, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. T. André, E. Quinaux, C. Louvet et al., “Phase III study comparing a semimonthly with a monthly regimen of fluorouracil and leucovorin as adjuvant treatment for stage II and III colon cancer patients: final results of GERCOR C96.1,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 25, no. 24, pp. 3732–3738, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. I. Chau, A. R. Norman, D. Cunningham et al., “A randomised comparison between 6 months of bolus fluorouracil/leucovorin and 12 weeks of protracted venous infusion fluorouracil as adjuvant treatment in colorectal cancer,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 549–557, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. T. André, C. Boni, M. Navarro et al., “Improved overall survival with oxaliplatin, fluorouracil, and leucovorin as adjuvant treatment in stage II or III colon cancer in the MOSAIC trial,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 27, no. 19, pp. 3109–3116, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. E. van der Vlies, A. Meerveld-Eggink, C. B. Hunting, P. C. de Jong, and M. Los, “The toxicity and dose intensity of adjuvant treatment with capecitabine and oxaliplatin in stage III and high-risk stage II colon cancer,” Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Oncologie, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 92–99, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  21. H.-J. Schmoll, T. Cartwright, J. Tabernero et al., “Phase III trial of capecitabine plus oxaliplatin as adjuvant therapy for stage III colon cancer: a planned safety analysis in 1,864 patients,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 102–109, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. P. M. de Boer, M. A. H. van Leeuwen, J. M. Cheng et al., “Trial participation as a determinant of clinical outcome: differences between trial-participants and every day clinical care patients in the field of interventional cardiology,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 169, no. 4, pp. 305–310, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. Abraham, E. B. Habermann, D. A. Rothenberger et al., “Adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer in the oldest old: results beyond clinical guidelines,” Cancer, vol. 119, no. 2, pp. 395–403, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. T. M. Wildes, D. Kallogjeri, B. Powers et al., “The benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in elderly patients with stage III colorectal cancer is independent of age and comorbidity,” Journal of Geriatric Oncology, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 48–56, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. G. Nakayama, C. Tanaka, K. Uehara et al., “The impact of dose/time modification in irinotecan- and oxaliplatin-based chemotherapies on outcomes in metastatic colorectal cancer,” Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology, vol. 73, no. 4, pp. 847–855, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. H. Yamaguchi, T. Hirakawa, and K. Inokuchi, “Importance of relative dose intensity in chemotherapy for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma,” Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hematopathology, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 1–5, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. C. Kastner, J. Armitage, A. Kimble, J. Rawal, P. G. Carter, and S. Venn, “The Charlson comorbidity score: a superior comorbidity assessment tool for the prostate cancer multidisciplinary meeting,” Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 270–274, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. E. Charlson, P. Pompei, K. A. Ales, and C. R. MacKenzie, “A new method of classifying prognostic comorbidity in longitudinal studies: development and validation,” Journal of Chronic Diseases, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 373–383, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. R. Ouellette, D. G. Small, and P. M. Termuhlen, “Evaluation of Charlson-Age Comorbidity Index as predictor of morbidity and mortality in patients with colorectal carcinoma,” Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery, vol. 8, no. 8, pp. 1061–1067, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. M. Loree, K. E. Mulder, S. Ghosh, and J. L. Spratlin, “CAPOX associated with toxicities of higher grade but improved disease-free survival when compared with FOLFOX in the adjuvant treatment of stage III colon cancer,” Clinical Colorectal Cancer, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 172–177, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. L. Gleisner, H. Mogal, R. Dodson et al., “Nodal status, number of lymph nodes examined, and lymph node ratio: what defines prognosis after resection of colon adenocarcinoma?” Journal of the American College of Surgeons, vol. 217, no. 6, pp. 1090–1100, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. D. Edler, K. Öhrling, M. Hallström, M. Karlberg, and P. Ragnhammar, “The number of analyzed lymph nodes—a prognostic factor in colorectal cancer,” Acta Oncologica, vol. 46, no. 7, pp. 975–981, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. O. H. Sjo, M. A. Merok, A. Svindland, and A. Nesbakken, “Prognostic impact of lymph node harvest and lymph node ratio in patients with colon cancer,” Diseases of the Colon and Rectum, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 307–315, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. C. Berger, E. R. Sigurdson, T. LeVoyer et al., “Colon cancer survival is associated with decreasing ratio of metastatic to examined lymph nodes,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 23, no. 34, pp. 8706–8712, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. K. Sugimoto, K. Sakamoto, Y. Tomiki, M. Goto, Y. Kojima, and H. Komiyama, “The validity of predicting prognosis by the lymph node ratio in node-positive colon cancer,” Digestive Surgery, vol. 30, no. 4–6, pp. 368–374, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. J. Zhang, L. Lv, Y. Ye, K. Jiang, Z. Shen, and S. Wang, “Comparison of metastatic lymph node ratio staging system with the 7th AJCC system for colorectal cancer,” Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology, vol. 139, no. 11, pp. 1947–1953, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. “Efficacy of adjuvant fluorouracil and folinic acid in B2 colon cancer. International Multicentre Pooled Analysis of B2 Colon Cancer Trials (IMPACT B2) Investigators,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 1356–1363, 1999.
  38. R. Grande, D. Corsi, R. Mancini et al., “Evaluation of relapse-free survival in T3N0 Colon cancer: the role of chemotherapy, a multicentric retrospective analysis,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 12, Article ID e80188, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. B. Cakar, U. Varol, B. Junushova et al., “Evaluation of the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with high-risk stage II colon cancer,” Journal of B.U.ON., vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 372–376, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. P. Snaebjornsson, V. M. H. Coupe, L. Jonasson, G. A. Meijer, N. C. van Grieken, and J. G. Jonasson, “PT4 stage II and III colon cancers carry the worst prognosis in a nationwide survival analysis. Shepherd's local peritoneal involvement revisited,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 135, no. 2, pp. 467–478, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. M. J. O'Connell, J. A. Mailliard, M. J. Kahn et al., “Controlled trial of fluorouracil and low-dose leucovorin given for 6 months as postoperative adjuvant therapy for colon cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 246–250, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. S. Gill, C. L. Loprinzi, D. J. Sargent et al., “Pooled analysis of fluorouracil-based adjuvant therapy for stage II and III colon cancer: who benefits and by how much?” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 22, no. 10, pp. 1797–1806, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. National Working Group on Gastrointestinal Cancers, Colon Cancer Nation-Wide Guideline, Version 2.0, 2008.
  44. D. Cunningham, E. A. Hawkes, A. Jack et al., “Rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone in patients with newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a phase 3 comparison of dose intensification with 14-day versus 21-day cycles,” The Lancet, vol. 381, no. 9880, pp. 1817–1826, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. K. Shitara, S. Yuki, D. Tahahari et al., “Randomised phase II study comparing dose-escalated weekly paclitaxel vs standard-dose weekly paclitaxel for patients with previously treated advanced gastric cancer,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 110, no. 2, pp. 271–277, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. P. Bonomi, K. Kim, D. Fairclough et al., “Comparison of survival and quality of life in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients treated with two dose levels of paclitaxel combined with cisplatin versus etoposide with cisplatin: results of an eastern cooperative oncology group trial,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 623–631, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. L. N. Shulman, C. T. Cirrincione, D. A. Berry et al., “Six cycles of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide or paclitaxel are not superior to four cycles as adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer in women with zero to three positive axillary nodes: cancer and leukemia group B 40101,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 30, no. 33, pp. 4071–4076, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus