Table of Contents
International Scholarly Research Notices
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 9351787, 9 pages
Research Article

Studies on Shokyo, Kanzo, and Keihi in Kakkonto Medicine on Prostaglandin E2 Production in Lipopolysaccharide-Treated Human Gingival Fibroblasts

Department of Pharmacology, Matsumoto Dental University, 1780 Gobara Hirooka, Shiojiri, Nagano 399-0781, Japan

Received 31 May 2016; Revised 22 July 2016; Accepted 26 September 2016

Academic Editor: Fong-Fu Hsu

Copyright © 2016 Toshiaki Ara and Norio Sogawa. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


We previously demonstrated that a kampo medicine, kakkonto, decreases lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production by human gingival fibroblasts. In this study, we examined the herbs constituting kakkonto that exhibit this effect. Shokyo strongly and concentration dependently and kanzo and keihi moderately decreased LPS-induced PGE2 production. Shokyo did not alter cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity, cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), annexin 1 and COX-2 expression, and LPS-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. Kanzo inhibited COX-2 activity but increased annexin 1 and COX-2 expression and did not alter LPS-induced ERK phosphorylation. Keihi inhibited COX-2 activity and LPS-induced ERK phosphorylation but slightly increased COX-2 expression and did not alter cPLA2 and annexin 1 expression. These results suggest that the mechanism of shokyo is through the inhibition of cPLA2 activity, and that of kanzo and keihi is through the inhibition of COX-2 activity and indirect inhibition of cPLA2 activity. Therefore, it is possible that shokyo and kakkonto are clinically useful for the improvement of inflammatory responses.