International Scholarly Research Notices

International Scholarly Research Notices / 2017 / Article

Review Article | Open Access

Volume 2017 |Article ID 8098154 |

Rajesh Gyawali, Bhagabat Bhattarai, "Orthodontic Management in Aggressive Periodontitis", International Scholarly Research Notices, vol. 2017, Article ID 8098154, 8 pages, 2017.

Orthodontic Management in Aggressive Periodontitis

Academic Editor: Hee-Jin Kim
Received06 Sep 2016
Revised18 Jan 2017
Accepted26 Jan 2017
Published16 Feb 2017


Aggressive periodontitis is a type of periodontitis with early onset and rapid progression and mostly affecting young adults who occupy a large percentage of orthodontic patients. The role of the orthodontist is important in screening the disease, making a provisional diagnosis, and referring it to a periodontist for immediate treatment. The orthodontist should be aware of the disease not only before starting the appliance therapy, but also during and after the active mechanotherapy. The orthodontic treatment plan, biomechanics, and appliance system may need to be modified to deal with the teeth having reduced periodontal support. With proper force application and oral hygiene maintenance, orthodontic tooth movement is possible without any deleterious effect in the tooth with reduced bone support. With proper motivation and interdisciplinary approach, orthodontic treatment is possible in patients with controlled aggressive periodontitis.

1. Introduction

Periodontitis is the inflammation of the supporting tissues of the teeth, caused by specific microorganisms, which leads to progressive destruction of the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone with pocket formation, recession, or both. Aggressive periodontitis (juvenile or early onset periodontitis) is characterized by early onset mostly affecting young people and in the absence of significant plaque and calculus and shows a rapid progression of destruction. It has been found to show a familial pattern of occurrence with no known contributing medical history [1, 2].

Localized aggressive periodontitis is characterized by involvement of at least one first molar and one incisor or second molar and two or fewer canines or premolars with greater than 3 mm of attachment loss. Generalized aggressive periodontitis involves four or more teeth with greater than 3 mm of attachment loss; and at least two affected teeth were second molars, canines, or premolars [3].

Aggressive periodontitis affects adolescents and the percentage of adolescents is highest among orthodontic patients [4]. Hence, it is of utmost important for an orthodontist to have knowledge and ability to diagnose and manage the case of aggressive periodontitis with multidisciplinary approach.

2. Etiology and Epidemiology

Aggressive periodontitis shows its onset at puberty [5], may be because of the elevation of certain hormones in blood and gingival fluid, both of which may act as growth factors for the causative bacteria. Aggressive periodontitis is more common among younger individuals, but it does not mean that all youth are equally susceptible. Prevalence of aggressive periodontitis varies widely among various races and ethnicities from 0.1% to 15% [2, 6]. It is more prevalent in African Americans and Hispanics as compared to Caucasians [710]. Besides, genetics, age, and environment may also influence it. Females are found to be more affected than male [11].

The major pathogen found to be involved in aggressive periodontitis is Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (previously known as Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans). Besides other bacteria like Porphyromonas gingivalis, Campylobacter rectus, Eikenella corrodens, and Capnocytophaga sp. are also found to be associated with it. Even with these pathogens, the susceptibility of the disease differs among individuals and the reason behind is the immune defects.

Neutrophils are the major blood cells of innate defense active against bacterial pathogens and are derived from the bone marrow stem cells. In periodontium, these neutrophils are the protective cells and any defects associated with them lead to increased susceptibility to periodontitis. Neutrophil defects like abnormalities in adherence, chemotaxis, superoxide generation, phagocytosis, and bactericidal activities have also been found to be accountable for the susceptibility to aggressive periodontitis [2]. It is multifactorial in origin and is a genetically complex disease. It is found to be inherited by an autosomal dominant [12], autosomal recessive [1315], and X-linked dominant mode [5, 16, 17].

3. Diagnosis of Aggressive Periodontitis

Diagnosis is based on history, clinical examination, and radiographs. Besides immunological tests, microbiological tests are also performed. More often, its diagnosis is made in the age which is the same age as that when orthodontic treatment is generally started [18]. The first molar which is usually involved in aggressive periodontitis is the tooth important for orthodontist because it is frequently used for anchorage in various removable or fixed appliance. Also contact of bands used in first molars with the gingival tissue may irritate it aggravating the condition [19]. Hence it is essential that orthodontist screens each case for aggressive periodontitis and is able to make an honest diagnosis and coordinate with the periodontist for proper care.

For the diagnosis of localized aggressive periodontitis, there should be attachment loss of at least 4 mm on at least one permanent first molar and one incisor [20]. Here are some features which help in the diagnosis of aggressive periodontitis.

3.1. Clinical [21]

(i)Generally affecting the young adults.(ii)Rapid loss of attachment and alveolar bone height.(iii)Familial aggregation.(iv)Absence of significant medical history.(v)Severe periodontal destruction which is inconsistent with the amount of deposits.(vi)Lack of clinical signs of inflammation in spite of the presence of deep pockets and bone loss.

3.2. Radiographic [3]

(i)Vertical loss of alveolar bone height around first molar and incisors.(ii)Arc shaped bone loss seen extending from the distal surface of the second premolar to the mesial surface of the second molar.

3.3. Microbiologic [22]

Although a large number of pathogens are associated with periodontitis, many studies have shown few specific strains related to aggressive periodontitis. A. actinomycetemcomitans is found in high frequency in microbial deposits on the teeth affected with localized aggressive periodontitis. Similarly, patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis show high subgingival levels of Selenomonas sp. and T. lecithinolyticum.

3.4. Host Susceptibility [2]

Some people are more susceptible to aggressive periodontitis indicating a significant role of host susceptibility behind the disease. In addition, local and general environmental factors also play significant roles. Herpes virus may increase the host susceptibility and aggravate the severity of aggressive periodontitis.

4. Orthodontic Problems Associated with the Aggressive Periodontitis

The loss of interproximal attachment is the main factor leading to pathologic tooth migration [23] and clinically seen as extrusion, proclination, rotation, diastema, or drifting into edentulous space [24]. Altered level of the incisal edge and space between anterior teeth leads to unaesthetic appearance and is the prime reason for seeking orthodontic treatment.

5. Role of Orthodontist in the Management of Aggressive Periodontitis

Aggressive periodontitis may develop before, during, or even after the completion of orthodontic treatment. So periodontal screening should be done in all patients regardless of the initiation of orthodontic treatment [25]. Khocht et al. found that periodontal screening and recording (PSR) is an effective tool to scrutinize periodontal diseases [26].

5.1. Before Starting Orthodontic Treatment

For any patient attending the orthodontic clinic, the orthodontists should ensure that their oral hygiene is good. In patients with poor oral hygiene, oral prophylaxis is recommended and their ability to maintain the hygiene is evaluated. If the compliance towards the oral hygiene is poor, orthodontic therapy is postponed till the achievement of proper plaque control.

Mathews and Kokich recommended that, during clinical examination, at least five minutes of periodontal examination, including probing of key indicator teeth, is mandatory before making orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning [27]. Gingival inflammation, swelling, recession, tooth mobility, and pathological pockets should be assessed. Besides, the patient should be asked for the recent change in the position or drifting of teeth. Radiographic assessment of bone loss is made from the bite wing radiograph of the first molar and intraoral periapical radiograph of incisors [19]. Newer imaging methods like CBCT give more insight into the bony defects which facilitates better treatment planning [28]. Further, serum IgG titer test against each pathogenic bacterium can be done with ELISA as the serum level of IgG directly correlates with the number of pathogenic bacteria in the periodontium [29]. Elimination of bacteria from the periodontal pockets can be assessed with this test which is useful for determining the optimal timing to start orthodontic treatment [30]. Any clinical signs of aggressive periodontal disease like attachment loss, pockets, and bone loss when found should be consulted with a periodontist for appropriate care.

After the patient is diagnosed with aggressive periodontitis, he/she should be referred to a periodontist. Along with the local mechanical debridement, adjunctive antibiotics are a valuable tool in the management; however, the literature is not very clear regarding optimum dosages, duration, and timing [31]. An adjunctive course of seven days of amoxicillin (500 mg) and metronidazole (500 mg) three times a day can significantly improve clinical outcome of aggressive periodontitis treated nonsurgically [32]. Flap surgeries for debridement either with resective or regenerative procedures can be performed to get assess for instrumentation [33].

A follow-up period of 6 months is needed after active periodontal therapy so as to observe the resolution of active inflammation and restoration of the periodontal health [34, 35]. As there is no deleterious effect of orthodontic tooth movement on healthy periodontium, orthodontic treatment can be started once the health of periodontium is achieved back [36]. Now it is the duty of the orthodontist to motivate the patient to maintain good oral hygiene during the course of orthodontic treatment [37] and warn the patient regarding the consequences of poor oral health.

The decrease in the height of the alveolar bone around the affected teeth demands change in orthodontic treatment plan and biomechanics. As the bone surrounding the root surface is decreased, the periodontal ligament area also gets decreased. Hence, even less force applied may produce greater pressure in the periodontal ligament and thus increases the extrusive component of the applied force. Hence, light force should be used to move the tooth with reduced bone support. As the centre of resistance is shifted apically, moment of the applied force increases and thus large moments are needed to control the root movement [38].

Fixed orthodontic appliance is preferred over removable because fixed appliance acts as splinting, helps in stabilizing anchorage, and provides light continuous force which is not possible with removable appliances. Also, applying moments to control root movements is easier with fixed appliance.

Most of the removable and fixed orthodontic appliances use first molar as an anchorage unit. Reduced bone support of the first permanent molar in aggressive periodontitis decreases its anchorage quality leading to undesirable side effects. If anchorage is critical, temporary anchorage devices (TAD) can be used in such cases. Also direct application of force from TAD avoids bonding/banding of anchorage segments reducing plaque retentive areas [39]. However, it is very important to motivate patient to maintain proper oral hygiene as oral inflammation leads to failure of temporary anchorage devices [40, 41].

5.2. During Active Orthodontic Treatment

Orthodontic treatment should be started only after the clinician is convinced that the patient is well motivated and can follow the oral hygiene instructions well. Orthodontic therapy includes wires, brackets, bands, or other several components which further lodge plaque and make oral hygiene more challenging. Hence, the importance of rigorous oral hygiene should be reinforced in each visit of the patient. Orthodontic patients with aggressive periodontitis require a separate periodontal appointment with a periodontist once every 3 months [19].

However, clinical periodontal examination should be done in every appointment patient comes for orthodontic follow-up. Any detrimental effects in a patient are noted and if found severe the patient is referred to a periodontist immediately. For any patient who cannot maintain proper oral hygiene, active orthodontic force should be stopped and removal of the whole appliance may be considered till the desired improvement and motivation are achieved. The orthodontic treatment may be continued once the condition is improved. Radiographic examination, including bitewing for the molars and the intraoral periapical radiograph for the incisors, should be taken once a year during the course of orthodontic treatment [19].

Sometimes aggressive periodontitis can be diagnosed during the course of orthodontic treatment. In such condition, the active orthodontic force should be discontinued immediately and the patient should be referred to a periodontist for proper therapy [42]. To facilitate the proper periodontal therapy, removal of the orthodontic appliance should be considered if necessary [36].

The orthodontic treatment should be performed with great care in patients with aggressive periodontitis. Orthodontic bands predispose to gingivitis, gingival enlargement, increased pocket depth, and even attachment loss due to mechanical irritation or poor oral hygiene [43, 44]. “Special periodontally friendly bands” are being designed which is more hygienic than the conventional bands [45]. Bondable Buccal tubes are preferred over bands because they have minimal negative effects on the periodontium as they are at a greater distance from the gingival margins [46, 47]. Whenever possible, steel ligature wire should be used instead of elastomeric modules to ligate the archwire to the brackets because the former is less plaque retentive and easier to clean [4850]. Special consideration should be given to remove excess composite around the brackets especially at the gingival margin.

Placing brackets in an ideal position in all teeth may not be necessary, particularly in the anchorage segment involving teeth with bone loss. Brackets are bonded in such a way that the slots are aligned and wire can be engaged passively so as to minimally disturb the anchor teeth in physiologically satisfactory position [35]. Treatment should be done with the use of simplest system avoiding multiple wires, loops, and multiple attachments to allow better oral hygiene [51]. During the stage of levelling and alignment, light wires like 0.012′′ or 0.014′′ Nickel titanium are recommended [18]. Activation of orthodontic appliance in patient with aggressive periodontitis should be done at longer interval as the periodontal remodeling takes more time when compared to normal individual.

If orthodontic plan includes extraction, then the teeth with hopeless prognosis are extracted for which change in the original mechanotherapy may be needed. After extraction of teeth involved in aggressive periodontitis, it is better to wait at least 3 months to move a sound tooth in the extraction space to prevent reinvolvement of newly positioned tooth [52].

Teeth bonded with self-ligating brackets had fewer bacteria in plaque as compared with elastomeric rings [53, 54]. However, brackets ligated with ligature wire harbor still less bacteria than the self-ligating brackets which may be because of the clips and retentive areas in self-ligating brackets [54]. Hence, metallic ligature wire seems to be appropriate in cases of patients with aggressive periodontitis.

There is difficulty in maintaining oral hygiene with lingual appliance as compared to labial [5557]. A. actinomycetemcomitans is associated with aggressive periodontitis, which is found in very high frequency among orthodontic patients [58, 59]. As oral hygiene is critical during management of patients with aggressive periodontitis, labial appliance can be preferred. However, increased prevalence of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis has not been observed in patients with lingual appliance [60].

The orthodontist may need to intrude the extruded incisor with vertical bone loss involved in the aggressive disease. Improvement in alveolar bone defects, probing depth, gingival esthetics, and clinical attachment gain can be seen with proper application of orthodontic force [36, 61]. To prevent the apical displacement of plaque, therapy aimed to reduce pocket depth should be done earlier [62].

5.3. During Retention and Long Term Follow-Up

Removable retainers are best if periodontal health is considered, but poor compliance may result in relapse. Also, clear vacuum formed retainer which has minimal gingival contact would be better than the acrylic removable retainer with retentive clasps in close proximity with the gingiva. Fixed retainers placed after active orthodontic treatment may contribute to plaque retention [63]. So, periodontal examination should be done as a part of follow-up. Those patients who have not developed aggressive periodontitis till the end of active orthodontic therapy may develop during the retention phase, so similar precautions should be taken in all the patients. Regular periodontal follow-up along with strict oral hygiene measures contribute to long term maintenance of the achieved result [64, 65]. Successful orthodontic therapy can be done despite the compromised periodontium with aggressive periodontitis (Table 1).

Author (year)PatientAggressive periodontitisType of periodontal procedures doneDuration of active orthodontic treatmentOrthodontic considerations during treatment

Ishihara et al. [30]
F21GeneralizedSurgical and nonsurgical28 months(i) Close monitoring of serum IgG against A. actinomycetemcomitans and Prevotella intermedia
(ii) Preadjusted edgewise appliance with self-ligating brackets
(iii) Initial levelling with 0.012 nickel titanium wire
(iv) Lingual bonded retainer as well as wrap around retainer after active therapy

Closs et al. [65]
F22LocalizedSurgical and nonsurgical32 months(i) Extraction of maxillary deciduous second molars followed by mesial movement of maxillary molars (missing maxillary second premolars)
(ii) Segmented mechanics and light force
(iii) Removable retainer in maxillary while fixed lingual retainer in mandibular arch

Miyamoto et al. [66]
F24LocalizedNonsurgical40 months(i) Extraction of maxillary first premolars and subapical osteotomy to reposition it back
(ii) Extraction of mandibular central incisor and proximal stripping of other incisors to minimize tooth movement in lower arch
(iii) Flexible spiral wire and removable circumferential retainer

Passanezi et al. [67]
F17LocalizedSurgical and nonsurgical26 months(i) Initial levelling with light force (0.012 NITI)
(ii) Intrusion of flared and extruded maxillary incisors with reverse curve wire
(iii) Class II elastics for overjet control
(iv) Permanent fixed retention in both arches with removable retainer in maxillary arch

Craddock et al. [68]
F27Generalized7 months(i) Alignment and levelling of the drifted upper incisors with fixed appliance
(ii) permanent bonded retainer

Ogino et al. [69]
F30LocalizedSurgical and nonsurgical19 months(i) Intrusion of maxillary and mandibular incisors to reduce overbite
(ii) Retraction of maxillary incisors to reduce overjet
(iii) Begg retainer in maxillary arch and fixed retainer in mandibular arch

Maeda et al. [70]
F27LocalizedSurgical and nonsurgical21 months(i) Extraction of 11 and 31
(ii) Levelling and alignment started with 0.012 Nickel titanium archwire
(iii) Cervical pull headgear
(iv) Multiloop edgewise archwire
(v) Maxillary circumferential removable retainer and mandibular bonded canine to canine retainer

Okada et al. [71]
M17LocalizedNonsurgical36 months(i) Patient presented with Pierre robins sequence
(ii) Extraction of maxillary first premolars and retraction and alignment of upper anteriors
(iii) During levelling, maxillary left central incisor showed marked mobility and thus is extracted (later replaced with fixed bridge).
(iv) Active orthodontic therapy was halted for half a year
(v) Simultaneous use of quad helix for maxillary arch expansion
(vi) Wrap around retainer

Harpenau and Boyd [64] (2000)F16LocalizedNonsurgical(i) Extraction of all first molars and subsequent space closure with retraction and well as protraction

Folio et al. [72]
M32Localized4 months(i) Supra-erupted maxillary left lateral incisor
(ii) 0.019 by 0.022 inch passive arch wire with 0.018 inch round wire “kicker” for intrusive force
(iii) Mild root resorption of the intruded tooth maintaining the vitality
(iv) Upper Hawley’s appliance for retention

Folio et al. [72]
M21Localized4 months(i) Maxillary left lateral incisor was in crossbite which was corrected with 0.016′′ Nickel titanium wire
(ii) Modified Hawley’s retainer after alignment

Folio et al. [72]
F28Localized11 months(i) Extensively drifted maxillary incisors were aligned and space closure by 0.018 by 0.022 inch wire with closing loops

Folio et al. [72]
F16Localized19 months(i) Intrusion of mandibular incisors and alignment of maxillary anteriors (which was pathologically migrated)
(ii) Removable Hawley’s retainer

McLain et al. [73]
F12LocalizedNonsurgical36 months(i) Extraction of severely affected teeth (all first molars and four lower incisors and left maxillary central incisor)
(ii) Mesialization of second and third molars 3 yrs after the extraction
(iii) Upper 17 × 22 and lower 17 × 25 wire with loops were used to close the space

6. Conclusion

Aggressive periodontitis mostly affects young adults, causing rapid periodontal destruction with loss of supporting alveolar bone. For the movement of teeth, healthy periodontium is required. Hence, in patients with aggressive periodontitis, orthodontic treatment is possible only when the disease is brought under control via careful monitoring before, during, and after the active therapy.

Competing Interests

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.


  1. G. C. Armitage, “Development of a classification system for periodontal diseases and conditions,” Annals of Periodontology, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 1999. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  2. H. Meng, L. Xu, Q. Li, J. Han, and Y. Zhao, “Determinants of host susceptibility in aggressive periodontitis,” Periodontology 2000, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 133–159, 2007. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  3. M. G. Newman, H. Takei, P. R. Klokkevold, and F. A. Carranza, Carranza's Clinical Periodontology, Elsevier Health Sciences, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 10th edition, 2011.
  4. D. K. Bagga, “Adult orthodontics versus adolescent orthodontics: an overview,” Journal of Oral Health & Community Dentistry, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 42–47, 2010. View at: Google Scholar
  5. R. C. Page, G. E. Vandesteen, J. L. Ebersole, B. L. Williams, I. L. Dixon, and L. C. Altman, “Clinical and laboratory studies of a family with a high prevalence of juvenile periodontitis,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 56, no. 10, pp. 602–610, 1985. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  6. J. M. Albandar, L. J. Brown, and H. Löe, “Clinical features of early-onset periodontitis,” Journal of the American Dental Association, vol. 128, no. 10, pp. 1393–1399, 1997. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  7. A. L. Neely, “Prevalence of juvenile periodontitis in a circumpubertal population,” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 367–372, 1992. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  8. L. Saxén, “Prevalence of juvenile periodontitis in Finland,” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 177–186, 1980. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  9. W. L. Melvin, J. B. Sandifer, and J. L. Gray, “The prevalence and sex ratio of juvenile periodontitis in a young racially mixed population,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 330–334, 1991. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  10. H. Löe and L. J. Brown, “Early onset periodontitis in the United States of America,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 62, no. 10, pp. 608–616, 1991. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  11. J. Høsrmand and A. Frandsen, “Juvenile periodontitis localization of bone loss in relation to age, sex, and teeth,” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 407–416, 1979. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  12. J. A. Boughman, J. A. Astemborski, and J. B. Suzuki, “Phenotypic assessment of early onset periodontitis in sibships,” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 233–239, 1992. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  13. J. C. Long, W. E. Nance, P. Waring, J. A. Burmeister, and R. R. Ranney, “Early onset periodontitis: a comparison and evaluation of two proposed modes of inheritance,” Genetic Epidemiology, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 13–24, 1987. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  14. T. H. Beaty, J. A. Boughman, P. Yang, J. A. Astemborski, and J. B. Suzuki, “Genetic analysis of juvenile periodontitis in families ascertained through an affected proband,” American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 443–452, 1987. View at: Google Scholar
  15. J. A. Boughman, T. H. Beaty, P. Yang, S. B. Goodman, R. K. Wooten, and J. B. Suzuki, “Problems of genetic model testing in early onset periodontitis,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 332–337, 1988. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  16. M. Melnick, E. D. Shields, and D. Bixler, “Periodontosis: a phenotypic and genetic analysis,” Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 32–41, 1976. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  17. M. D. Spektor, G. E. Vandesteen, and R. C. Page, “Clinical studies of one family manifesting rapidly progressive, juvenile and prepubertal periodontitis,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 93–101, 1985. View at: Google Scholar
  18. H. Hazan-Molina, L. Levin, S. Einy, and D. Aizenbud, “Aggressive periodontitis diagnosed during or before orthodontic treatment,” Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, vol. 71, no. 5, pp. 1023–1031, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  19. L. Levin, S. Einy, H. Zigdon, D. Aizenbud, and E. E. Machtei, “Guidelines for periodontal care and follow-up during orthodontic treatment in adolescents and young adults,” Journal of Applied Oral Science, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 399–403, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  20. T. C. Hart, M. L. Marazita, H. A. Schenkein, and S. R. Diehl, “Re-interpretation of the evidence for X-linked dominant inheritance of juvenile periodontitis,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 169–173, 1992. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  21. G. C. Armitage and M. P. Cullinan, “Comparison of the clinical features of chronic and aggressive periodontitis,” Periodontology 2000, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 12–27, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  22. B. Riep, L. Edesi-Neuß, F. Claessen et al., “Are putative periodontal pathogens reliable diagnostic markers?” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 1705–1711, 2009. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  23. P. Martinez-Canut, “A study on factors associated with pathologic tooth migration,” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 492–497, 1997. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  24. P. P. Towfighi, M. A. Brunsvold, A. T. Storey, R. M. Arnold, D. E. Willman, and C. A. McMahan, “Pathologic migration of anterior teeth in patients with moderate to severe periodontitis,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 68, no. 10, pp. 967–972, 1997. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  25. V. Clerehugh and S. Kindelan, “Guidelines for periodontal screening and management of children and adolescents under 18 years of age,” British Society of Periodontology and the British Society of Pediatric Dentistry, pp. 1–25, 2012. View at: Google Scholar
  26. A. Khocht, H. Zohn, M. Deasy, and K.-M. Chang, “Screening for periodontal disease: radiographs vs. PSR,” Journal of the American Dental Association, vol. 127, no. 6, pp. 749–756, 1996. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  27. D. P. Mathews and V. G. Kokich, “Managing treatment for the orthodontic patient with periodontal problems,” Seminars in orthodontics, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 21–38, 1997. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  28. T. Yamaguchi, K. Suzuki, K. Maki, M. Yamamoto, and Y. Tomoyasu, Interdisciplinary Treatment of Aggressive Periodontitis: Three-Dimensional Cone-Beam X-Ray Computed Tomography Evaluation, InTech Open Access, Rijeka, Croatia, 2012.
  29. K. Takahashi, H. Ohyama, M. Kitanaka et al., “Heterogeneity of host immunological risk factors in patients with aggressive periodontitis,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 72, no. 4, pp. 425–437, 2001. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  30. Y. Ishihara, K. Tomikawa, T. Deguchi et al., “Interdisciplinary orthodontic treatment for a patient with generalized aggressive periodontitis: assessment of IgG antibodies to identify type of periodontitis and correct timing of treatment,” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, vol. 147, no. 6, pp. 766–780, 2015. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  31. A. D. Haffajee, “Systemic antibiotics: to use or not to use in the treatment of periodontal infections. That is the question,” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 359–361, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  32. A. Guerrero, G. S. Griffiths, L. Nibali et al., “Adjunctive benefits of systemic amoxicillin and metronidazole in non-surgical treatment of generalized aggressive periodontitis: a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial,” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 1096–1107, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  33. T. Roshna and K. Nandakumar, “Generalized aggressive periodontitis and its treatment options: case reports and review of the literature,” Case Reports in Medicine, vol. 2012, Article ID 535321, 17 pages, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  34. A. Panchal, V. Patel, N. Bhavsar, and H. Mehta, “Orthodontic-periodontic intervention of pathological migration of maxillary anterior teeth in advanced periodontal disease,” Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 378–382, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  35. J. Tulloch, “Adjunctive treatment for adults,” in Contemporary Orthodontics, W. R. Proffit and H. W. Fields, Eds., pp. 616–643, Mosby, St. Louis, Mo, USA, 3rd edition, 2000. View at: Google Scholar
  36. N. L. Sanders, “Evidence-based care in orthodontics and periodontics: a review of the literature,” Journal of the American Dental Association, vol. 130, no. 4, pp. 521–527, 1999. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  37. C. L. Jackson and C. Orthod, “Comparison between electric toothbrushing and manual toothbrushing, with and without oral irrigation, for oral hygiene of orthodontic patients,” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 15–20, 1991. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  38. P. Diedrich, U. Fritz, and G. Kinzinger, “Interrelationship between periodontics and adult orthodontics,” Periodontal Practice Today, vol. 1, no. 3, 2004. View at: Google Scholar
  39. M. T.-C. Leung, T. C.-K. Lee, A. B. M. Rabie, and R. W.-K. Wong, “Use of miniscrews and miniplates in orthodontics,” Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, vol. 66, no. 7, pp. 1461–1466, 2008. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  40. H.-S. Park, S.-H. Jeong, and O.-W. Kwon, “Factors affecting the clinical success of screw implants used as orthodontic anchorage,” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, vol. 130, no. 1, pp. 18–25, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  41. S.-J. Cheng, I.-Y. Tseng, J.-J. Lee, and S.-H. Kok, “A prospective study of the risk factors associated with failure of mini-implants used for orthodontic anchorage,” International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 100–106, 2004. View at: Google Scholar
  42. E. E. Machtei, Y. Zubery, Y. Katz, J. Goultschin, and A. Ben-Yehouda, “Multiple therapy approach to juvenile periodontitis: a case report,” Quintessence international, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 365–370, 1991. View at: Google Scholar
  43. S. A. Alexander, “Effects of orthodontic attachments on the gingival health of permanent second molars,” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, vol. 100, no. 4, pp. 337–340, 1991. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  44. S. Zachrisson and B. U. Zachrisson, “Gingival condition associated with orthodontic treatment,” The Angle Orthodontist, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 26–34, 1972. View at: Google Scholar
  45. M. Sebbar, Z. Abidine, N. Laslami, and Z. Bentahar, Periodontal Health and Orthodontics, Emerging Trends in Oral Health Sciences and Dentistry, InTech, Rijeka, Croatia, 2015.
  46. S. A. Al-Anezi, “The effect of orthodontic bands or tubes upon periodontal status during the initial phase of orthodontic treatment,” Saudi Dental Journal, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 120–124, 2015. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  47. R. L. Boyd and S. Baumrind, “Periodontal considerations in the use of bonds or bands on molars in adolescents and adults,” The Angle Orthodontist, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 117–126, 1992. View at: Google Scholar
  48. S. Pradeep, “Determination of microbiological flora of different hygienic ligatures techniques—an in-vivo study,” International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 739–746, 2014. View at: Google Scholar
  49. H. Türkkahraman, M. Ö. Sayin, F. Y. Bozkurt, Z. Yetkin, S. Kaya, and S. Önal, “Archwire ligation techniques, microbial colonization, and periodontal status in orthodontically treated patients,” Angle Orthodontist, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 231–236, 2005. View at: Google Scholar
  50. C.-M. Forsberg, V. Brattström, E. Malmberg, and C. E. Nord, “Ligature wires and elastomeric rings: two methods of ligation, and their association with microbial colonization of streptococcus mutans and iactobacilli,” European Journal of Orthodontics, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 416–420, 1991. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  51. N. Gkantidis, P. Christou, and N. Topouzelis, “The orthodontic-periodontic interrelationship in integrated treatment challenges: a systematic review,” Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 377–390, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  52. M. C. Goldstein and M. E. Fritz, “Treatment of periodontosis by combined orthodontic and periodontal approach: report of case,” The Journal of the American Dental Association, vol. 93, no. 5, pp. 985–990, 1976. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  53. P. Pellegrini, R. Sauerwein, T. Finlayson et al., “Plaque retention by self-ligating vs elastomeric orthodontic brackets: quantitative comparison of oral bacteria and detection with adenosine triphosphate-driven bioluminescence,” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, vol. 135, no. 4, pp. 426.e1–426.e9, 2009. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  54. A. S. Garcez, S. S. Suzuki, M. S. Ribeiro, E. Y. Mada, A. Z. Freitas, and H. Suzuki, “Biofilm retention by 3 methods of ligation on orthodontic brackets: a microbiologic and optical coherence tomography analysis,” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, vol. 140, no. 4, pp. e193–e198, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  55. A. Hohoff, T. Stamm, N. Kühne et al., “Effects of a mechanical interdental cleaning device on oral hygiene in patients with lingual brackets,” The Angle Orthodontist, vol. 73, no. 5, pp. 579–587, 2003. View at: Google Scholar
  56. A. Hohoff, D. Fillion, T. Stamm, G. Goder, C. Sauerland, and U. Ehmer, “Oral comfort, function and hygiene in patients with lingual brackets. A Prospective Longitudinal Study,” Journal of Orofacial Orthopedics, vol. 64, no. 5, pp. 359–371, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  57. R.-R. Miethke and S. Vogt, “A comparison of the periodontal health of patients during treatment with the Invisalign system and with fixed orthodontic appliances,” Journal of Orofacial Orthopedics, vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 219–229, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  58. M. Paolantonio, “Clinical significance of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in young individuals during orthodontic treatment A 3-year longitudinal study,” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 610–617, 1997. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  59. M. Paolantonio, F. Festa, G. di Placido, M. D'Attilio, G. Catamo, and R. Piccolomini, “Site-specific subgingival colonization by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in orthodontic patients,” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics: Official Publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, its Constituent Societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics, vol. 115, no. 4, pp. 423–428, 1999. View at: Google Scholar
  60. A. Demling, C. Demling, R. Schwestka-Polly, M. Stiesch, and W. Heuer, “Influence of lingual orthodontic therapy on microbial parameters and periodontal status in adults,” European Journal of Orthodontics, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 638–642, 2009. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  61. G. Corrente, R. Abundo, S. Re, D. Cardaropoli, and G. Cardaropoli, “Orthodontic movement into infrabony defects in patients with advanced periodontal disease: A Clinical and Radiological Study,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 74, no. 8, pp. 1104–1109, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  62. B. Melsen, “Tissue reaction following application of extrusive and intrusive forces to teeth in adult monkeys,” American Journal of Orthodontics, vol. 89, no. 6, pp. 469–475, 1986. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  63. L. Levin, G. R. Samorodnitzky-Naveh, and E. E. Machtei, “The association of orthodontic treatment and fixed retainers with gingival health,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 79, no. 11, pp. 2087–2092, 2008. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  64. L. A. Harpenau and R. L. Boyd, “Long-term follow-up of successful orthodontic-periodontal treatment of localized aggressive periodontitis: A case report,” Orthodontics and Craniofacial Research, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 220–229, 2000. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  65. L. Q. Closs, S. C. Gomes, R. V. Oppermann, and V. Bertoglio, “Combined periodontal and orthodontic treatment in a patient with aggressive periodontitis: a 9-year follow-up report,” World Journal of Orthodontics, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 291–297, 2010. View at: Google Scholar
  66. M. Miyamoto, T. Yamashiro, and T. Takano-Yamamoto, “Surgical orthodontic treatment for severe maxillary protrusion with aggressive periodontitis,” Orthodontic Waves, vol. 67, no. 4, pp. 171–178, 2008. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  67. E. Passanezi, M. Janson, G. Janson, A. P. SantAnna, M. R. de Freitas, and J. F. C. Henriques, “Interdisciplinary treatment of localized juvenile periodontitis: a new perspective to an old problem,” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, vol. 131, no. 2, pp. 268–276, 2007. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  68. H. L. Craddock, V. C. Yorke, and M. F. W. Y. Chan, “Cosmetic rehabilitation following successful treatment of aggressive periodontitis,” Dental update, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 91–96, 2007. View at: Google Scholar
  69. T. Ogino, Y. Nakamura, K. Gomi, and A. Hirashita, “Orthodontic contribution to the periodontal management of a patient with localized aggressive periodontitis (post-juvenile periodontitis),” Orthodontic Waves, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 81–87, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  70. S. Maeda, Y. Maeda, Y. Ono, K. Nakamura, and T. Sasaki, “Interdisciplinary treatment of a patient with severe pathologic tooth migration caused by localized aggressive periodontitis,” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, vol. 127, no. 3, pp. 374–384, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  71. K. Okada, T. Yamashiro, S. Tenshin, and T. Takano-Yamamoto, “Orthodontic treatment for a patient with Pierre-Robin sequence complicated by juvenile periodontitis,” Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 318–324, 2000. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  72. J. Folio, T. E. Rams, and P. H. Keyes, “Orthodontic therapy in patients with juvenile periodontitis: clinical and microbiologic effects,” American Journal of Orthodontics, vol. 87, no. 5, pp. 421–431, 1985. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  73. J. B. McLain, W. R. Proffit, and R. H. Davenport, “Adjunctive orthodontic therapy in the treatment of juvenile periodontitis: report of a case and review of the literature,” American Journal of Orthodontics, vol. 83, no. 4, pp. 290–298, 1983. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar

Copyright © 2017 Rajesh Gyawali and Bhagabat Bhattarai. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

More related articles

 PDF Download Citation Citation
 Download other formatsMore
 Order printed copiesOrder

Related articles

Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions of 2020, as selected by our Chief Editors. Read the winning articles.