International Scholarly Research Notices The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Utilization of Preventive Measures for Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis among Veterans with Inflammatory Bowel Disease” Mon, 18 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Aikaterini Thanou, Tauseef Ali, Omar Haq, Sindhu Kaitha, Jordan Morton, Stavros Stavrakis, and Mary Beth Humphrey Copyright © 2017 Aikaterini Thanou et al. All rights reserved. Study on Strength Behavior of Organic Soil Stabilized with Fly Ash Mon, 11 Sep 2017 09:47:16 +0000 The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of fly ash on the consistency, compactness, acidic properties, and strength of organic soil. The presence of organic content in the soil has detrimental impacts on the physical and strength behavior of soil. To investigate the effectiveness of fly ash in the stabilization of organic soil, two types of fly ashes (Type I and Type II) at different percentages were used. It is found that fly ash significantly reduces the plasticity index of the organic soil, whereas the liquid and plastic limits increase. The dry density of the fly ash-soil mixture increases significantly, while the water requirement reduces due to the addition of fly ash. The increase of dry density compromises higher strength. The increase of with the increase of fly ash content is mainly due to the pozzolanic reaction of fly ash, although the reduction in water content results from the addition of dry fly ash solid. Moreover, Type I fly ash contributes a higher value of qu compared to Type II fly ash. This is attributed to the characteristics of fly ash including CaO and CaO/SiO2 ratio. Bayshakhi Deb Nath, Md. Keramat Ali Molla, and Grytan Sarkar Copyright © 2017 Bayshakhi Deb Nath et al. All rights reserved. Physicochemical Characterization and Polyphenolic Content of Beninese Honeys Thu, 07 Sep 2017 10:03:26 +0000 The physicochemical and phytochemical analyses of honeys () from Sudanese, Sudano-Guinean, and Guinean areas of Benin were investigated. Results showed that dark amber is the dominant color. Moisture content ranged from 15.50% to 23.50%, and 72% of honeys respected the Codex Alimentarius recommendation. pH varied between 2.87 and 6.15, and free acidity ranged from 9.00 to 39.00 meq/kg. Electrical conductivity varied from 0.37 to 1.43 mS/cm. The content in fructose varied from 21.67% to 94.21%, and proline content ranged between 306.31 and 1187.93 mg/kg. All physicochemical characteristics varied with the areas. A negative correlation was found between pH and moisture content (; ). A positive correlation was established between pH and conductivity (; ) and between proline and color (; ). Total phenolic content varied between 55.97 and 224.99 mg GAE/100 g, and flavonoid content ranged between 1.43 and 29.81 mg CAE/100 g. Flavonoid was positively correlated with color (; ) and proline (; ). Tukey’s test revealed differences between total phenolic and flavonoid contents of honeys from five areas (). In general, Sudanese and Sudano-Guinean honeys showed potential toward therapeutic applications because of their high phenolic contents. Sênan Christa Lokossou, Fidèle Paul Tchobo, Hounnankpon Yédomonhan, and Mohamed Mansourou Soumanou Copyright © 2017 Sênan Christa Lokossou et al. All rights reserved. Contraceptive Methods Accessed in Volta Region, Ghana, 2009–2014 Thu, 07 Sep 2017 08:15:31 +0000 Introduction. In 2016, Volta Region was one of the two regions in Ghana that recorded a high prevalence of teenage pregnancy, accounting for 15.5% of all adolescent pregnancies in the country. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of contraceptive methods accessed by person, place, and time in Volta Region, Ghana, 2009–2014. Method. We carried out a secondary analysis of contraceptive use data derived from the District Health Information Management System (DHIMS) 2 for Volta Region, between 2009 and 2014. We calculated proportions and described trends. Results. Over the five-year period, there were 673,409 (75.0%) acceptors of family planning out of a total 897, 645 males and females of reproductive age. The proportion of family planning acceptors increased gradually from 18% in 2009 to 23% in 2014. Contraceptive methods were most commonly accessed by male and female between 20 and 29 years. The most common methods of contraceptives accessed were injectables among females accounting for about 70% and condoms accounting for over 90% among males. Conclusion. All the districts in Volta Region did not access contraceptives adequately. The Volta Regional Health Directorate should encourage and support research to ascertain factors influencing uptake of contraceptive methods in all the districts. Himiede W. Wilson, Donne K. Ameme, and Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi Copyright © 2017 Himiede W. Wilson et al. All rights reserved. Diversity of Aerobic Bacteria Isolated from Oral and Cloacal Cavities from Free-Living Snakes Species in Costa Rica Rainforest Sun, 20 Aug 2017 09:17:36 +0000 Costa Rica has a significant number of snakebites per year and bacterial infections are often complications in these animal bites. Hereby, this study aims to identify, characterize, and report the diversity of the bacterial community in the oral and cloacal cavities of venomous and nonvenomous snakes found in wildlife in Costa Rica. The snakes where captured by casual encounter search between August and November of 2014 in the Quebrada González sector, in Braulio Carrillo National Park. A total of 120 swabs, oral and cloacal, were taken from 16 individuals of the Viperidae and Colubridae families. Samples were cultured on four different media at room temperature. Once isolated in pure culture, colonies were identified with the VITEK® 2C platform (bioMérieux). In order to test the identification provided on environmental isolates, molecular analyses were conducted on 27 isolates of different bacterial species. Specific 16S rDNA PCR-mediated amplification for bacterial taxonomy was performed, then sequenced, and compared with sequences of Ribosomal Database Project (RDP). From 90 bacterial isolates, 40 different bacterial species were identified from both oral and cloacal swabs. These results indicate the diversity of opportunistic pathogens present and their potential to generate infections and zoonosis in humans. Allan Artavia-León, Ariel Romero-Guerrero, Carolina Sancho-Blanco, Norman Rojas, and Rodolfo Umaña-Castro Copyright © 2017 Allan Artavia-León et al. All rights reserved. Accuracy of Preoperative Scoring Systems for the Prognostication and Treatment of Patients with Spinal Metastases Tue, 15 Aug 2017 09:10:10 +0000 Background. In patients with spinal metastatic disease, survival prognosis is a key consideration in selection for surgery and determining the extent of treatment. Individual survival prediction however remains difficult. We sought to validate the prognostic accuracy of seven preoperative scoring systems. Methods. 61 patients surgically treated for spinal metastases were retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative scores were calculated for Tokuhashi, Revised Tokuhashi, Bauer, Modified Bauer, Sioutos, Tomita, and van der Linden scoring systems. Prognostic value was determined by comparison of predicted and actual survival. Results. The Revised Tokuhashi and Modified Bauer scoring systems had the best survival predictive accuracy. Rate of agreement for survival prognosis was the greatest for the Modified Bauer score. There was a significant difference in survival of the prognostic groups for all but the van der Linden score, being most significant for the Revised Tokuhashi, Bauer, Modified Bauer, and Tomita scoring systems (). Conclusion. Overall, the scoring systems are accurate at differentiating patients into short-, intermediate-, and long-term survivors. More precise prediction of actual survival is limited and the decision for or against surgery should never be based on survival prognostication alone but should take into account symptoms such as neurological deficit or pain from pathological fracture and instability. Catherine S. Hibberd and Gerald M. Y. Quan Copyright © 2017 Catherine S. Hibberd and Gerald M. Y. Quan. All rights reserved. Use of Genotype MTBDRplus Assay for Diagnosis of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Nepal Sun, 13 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 The main aims of this study were to study the patterns of mutations in rpoB, katG, and inhA genes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from patients from Nepal and to evaluate the performance of genotype MTBDRplus assay, taking conventional drug susceptibility testing as gold standard for diagnosis of MDR-TB. A total of 69 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from 73 smear positive sputum samples from patients suspected of suffering from multidrug-resistant tuberculosis were used in our study. The drug susceptibility pattern of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from these sputum specimens was determined by using genotype MTBDRplus assay taking conventional drug susceptibility testing as reference. The sensitivity and specificity of the genotype MTBDRplus assay for the detection of MDR-TB were found to be 88.7% and 100%, respectively. 88.7% of the rifampicin resistant isolates had mutations in rpoB gene. Similarly, 79.7% and 9.4% of isoniazid resistant isolates had mutations in katG and inhA genes, respectively. Genotype MTBDRplus assay was found to be very rapid and highly sensitive and specific method for diagnosis of MDR-TB and will be very helpful for early diagnosis of MDR-TB in high tuberculosis burden countries. Elina Maharjan, Narayan Dutt Pant, Sanjeev Neupane, Jyoti Amatya, and Bhawana Shrestha Copyright © 2017 Elina Maharjan et al. All rights reserved. Fortification of Ogi with Whey Increases Essential Amino Acids Content of Fortified Product Mon, 07 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 The inability of humans to synthesize essential amino acids (EAA) necessitates the need to increase the levels of these nutrient molecules in certain foods in which they are deficient. Maize ogi is a typical food product for both infants and adults in Africa, but with poor EAA content. This study therefore sought to assess the possibility of increasing the EAA content in maize ogi by processing it with cheese whey instead of water. Maize ogi and whey-fortified ogi were prepared by the usual procedure of grain soaking, milling, and drying. Samples from both treatments were subjected to proximate composition and amino acid profile analyses using Waters 616/626 LC (HPLC) instrument. L-lysine, L-trytophan, and L-methionine contents in maize ogi remarkably increased from 0.52, 0.15, and 0.90 mg/100 gm sample, respectively, to 0.90, 240, and 1.320 mg/100 gm sample in whey-fortified ogi. There were also significant increases in other EAA contents of whey-fortified ogi relative to its counterpart (normal maize ogi). The sum increase in EAA contents (9,405 mg) correlates with the increase in protein (1 gm) per gram sample. This study demonstrates that cheese whey increases EAA content in maize ogi and suggests that whey-fortified maize ogi may be a preferred alternative to water processed maize ogi. J. O. Omole, O. M. Ighodaro, and O. Durosinolorun Copyright © 2017 J. O. Omole et al. All rights reserved. Use of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition, to Assess Developmental Outcome in Infants and Young Children in an Urban Setting in South Africa Tue, 01 Aug 2017 07:56:25 +0000 Background. The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (III) is a tool developed in a Western setting. Aim. To evaluate the development of a group of inner city children in South Africa with no neonatal risk factors using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (III), to determine an appropriate cut-off to define developmental delay, and to establish variation in scores done in the same children before and after one year of age. Methods. Cohort follow-up study. Results. 74 children had at least one Bayley III assessment at a mean age of 19.4 months (95% CI 18.4 to 20.4). The mean composite cognitive score was 92.2 (95% CI 89.4 to 95.0), the mean composite language score was 94.8 (95% CI 92.5 to 97.1), and mean composite motor score was 98.8 (95% CI 96.8 to 101.0). No child had developmental delay using a cut-off score of 70. In paired assessments above and below one year of age, the cognitive score remained unchanged, the language score decreased significantly (), and motor score increased significantly () between the two ages. Conclusion. The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (III) is a suitable tool for assessing development in urban children in southern Africa. Daynia E. Ballot, Tanusha Ramdin, David Rakotsoane, Faustine Agaba, Victor A. Davies, Tobias Chirwa, and Peter A. Cooper Copyright © 2017 Daynia E. Ballot et al. All rights reserved. Modeling the Impact of Bed-Net Use and Treatment on Malaria Transmission Dynamics Tue, 01 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 We modeled the impact of bed-net use and insecticide treated nets (ITNs), temperature, and treatment on malaria transmission dynamics using ordinary differential equations. To achieve this we formulated a simple model of mosquito biting rate that depends on temperature and usage of insecticides treated bed nets. We conducted global uncertainty and sensitivity analysis using Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHC) and Partial Rank Correlation Coefficient (PRCC) in order to find the most effective parameters that affect malaria transmission dynamics. We established the existence of the region where the model is epidemiologically feasible. We conducted the stability analysis of the disease-free equilibrium by the threshold parameter. We found the condition for the existence of the endemic equilibrium and provided necessary condition for its stability. Our results show that the peak of mosquitoes biting rate occurs at a range of temperature values not on a single value as previously reported in literature. The results also show that the combination of treatment and ITNs usage is the most effective intervention strategy towards control and eradication of malaria transmissions. Sensitivity analysis results indicate that the biting rate and the mosquitoes death rates are the most important parameters in the dynamics of malaria transmission. Bello Gimba and Saminu Iliyasu Bala Copyright © 2017 Bello Gimba and Saminu Iliyasu Bala. All rights reserved. Clinician’s Update on the Benign, Premalignant, and Malignant Skin Tumours of the Vulva: The Dermatologist’s View Tue, 25 Jul 2017 07:55:59 +0000 Correct and rapid diagnosis of skin tumours often requires biopsy and histopathological examination to differentiate benign lesions such as seborrhoeic keratoses or melanocytic naevi from premalignant and malignant lesions such as malignant melanoma. Particularly, to the untrained eye, any benign skin tumour—pigmented or nonpigmented—is easily mistaken for a malignant lesion. Qualified clinical evaluation is paramount in order to reduce the frequency of unwarranted skin biopsies. Herein, the most common benign, premalignant, and malignant vulvar skin tumours are reviewed. Freja Lærke Sand and Simon Francis Thomsen Copyright © 2017 Freja Lærke Sand and Simon Francis Thomsen. All rights reserved. Acute Appendicitis in Pregnancy and the Developing World Thu, 20 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Background. Acute appendicitis is the commonest nonobstetric surgical emergency during pregnancy. The aim of the study was to compare perioperative outcomes of acute appendicitis in pregnant and nonpregnant patients. Methods. A retrospective review of medical records of 56 pregnant patients between 2011 and 2016 who were compared with 164 nonpregnant women of reproductive age who underwent open appendectomy between 2014 and 2016 for acute appendicitis. The patient’s demographics and perioperative data were analyzed. Results. The median age of pregnant and nonpregnant patients observed was 26 years (range 19–37) and 26 years (range 18–43). There were no significant differences between the groups in negative appendectomy (21.4 and 21.3%, ), perforated appendicitis (25 and 23.8%, ), postoperative complications (28.6 and 26.8%, ), and median length of hospital stay (5 and 4.5 days, ). There were 3.6% preterm labour, no maternal mortality, and no fetal loss. In multivariate analysis, WBC >18000/mm3 and long patient time to surgery were independent risk factors for appendicular perforation and postoperative complication (). Conclusion. Our results of appendectomy in pregnant patients are comparable with nonpregnant patients. Hence the same perioperative treatment protocol can be followed in pregnant and nonpregnant patients even in resource-poor setting. Tika Ram Bhandari, Sudha Shahi, and Sarita Acharya Copyright © 2017 Tika Ram Bhandari et al. All rights reserved. The Ethanolic Stem-Bark Extract of Antrocaryon micraster Inhibits Carrageenan-Induced Pleurisy and Pedal Oedema in Murine Models of Inflammation Mon, 17 Jul 2017 08:01:55 +0000 We investigated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of a 70% v/v ethanol extract of the stem bark of Antrocaryon micraster on murine models of carrageenan-induced pleurisy and paw oedema. Rat pleural fluid was analysed for volume, protein content, and leucocytes, while lung histology was assessed for damage. Lung tissue homogenates were assayed for glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA), and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Phytochemical analysis was carried out on the stem bark. Acute toxicity studies were conducted in rats. In the pleurisy model the extract (30–300 mg/kg) significantly reduced the volume and amount of proteins and leucocytes in the exudate and also protected against lung injury. Tissue level of GSH and SOD and CAT expression were increased while MDA level and MPO activity were reduced. The peak and total oedema responses were significantly suppressed when given both preemptively and curatively in the mice paw oedema test. Saponins, alkaloids, triterpenoids, and tannins were present in the stem bark. A. micraster extract exhibited no apparent acute toxicity. We conclude that the ethanolic stem-bark extract of A. micraster has antioxidant action and exhibits significant anti-inflammatory activity through suppression of pleurisy and paw oedema induced with carrageenan. Leslie B. Essel, David D. Obiri, Newman Osafo, Aaron O. Antwi, and Babatunde M. Duduyemi Copyright © 2017 Leslie B. Essel et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Risk Factors for Fracture in Diabetes: The Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study” Wed, 12 Jul 2017 07:40:33 +0000 Lisa-Ann Fraser, Alexandra Papaioannou, Jonathan D. Adachi, Jinhui Ma, and Lehana Thabane Copyright © 2017 Lisa-Ann Fraser et al. All rights reserved. Review of Organism Density and Bacteriologic Conversion of Sputum among Tuberculosis Patients Tue, 11 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Objective. This study sought to describe the trend of sputum organism density and the rate of bacteriological conversion among smear positive TB patients assessing care at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Kumasi, Ghana. Methods. We conducted a retrospective patient folder review from January 2013 to March 2016 at the KATH, a tertiary hospital in Ghana. The data was entered into Microsoft Access database and exported into STATA for analysis. We applied basic descriptive statistics to study variables. Sputum conversion rate (SCR) was estimated using the number of negative tests recorded over a period (numerator) and the number of patients reported in the same period (denominator) and expressed as a percentage. Results. A total of 278 patient records with sputum smear positive at onset were studied. Before treatment sputum density detected in smear microscopy was as follows: 1 acid-fast bacillus (+) (), scanty (), ++ (), and +++ (). We recorded sputum conversion rate of 80.90%, 94.56%, and 98.31% in the intensive, continuation, and completion phases, respectively. Conclusion. This study has shown an increasing trend in sputum conversion of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis and an increasing trend in loss to follow-ups among tuberculosis patients on treatment. Francis Adjei Osei, Anthony Enimil, Daniel Ansong, Dennis Odai Laryea, Nicholas Karikari Mensah, Evans Xorse Amuzu, Ebenezer Opambour Agyemang, Phans Oduro Sarpong, Isaac Nyanor, and Denis Dekugmen Yar Copyright © 2017 Francis Adjei Osei et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Recommendations for Diagnosis and Management of Osteoporosis in COPD Men” Sun, 02 Jul 2017 08:14:41 +0000 Elias E. Mazokopakis and Ioannis K. Starakis Copyright © 2017 Elias E. Mazokopakis and Ioannis K. Starakis. All rights reserved. Dual Kidney Transplantation: A Review of Past and Prospect for Future Sun, 02 Jul 2017 07:44:45 +0000 Kidney transplantation (KT) is one of the treatment options for patients with chronic kidney disease. The number of patients waiting for kidney transplantation is growing day by day. Various strategies have been put in place to expand the donor pool. Extended criteria donors are now accepted more frequently. Increasing number of elderly donors with age > 60 years, history of diabetes or hypertension, and clinical proteinuria are accepted as donor. Dual kidney transplantation (DKT) is also more frequently done and experience with this technique is slowly building up. DKT not only helps to reduce the number of patients on waiting list but also limits unnecessary discard of viable organs. Surgical complications of DKT are comparable to single kidney transplantation (SKT). Patient and graft survivals are also promising. This review article provides a summary of evidence available in the literature. Muhammad Abdul Mabood Khalil, Jackson Tan, Taqi F. Toufeeq Khan, Muhammad Ashhad Ullah Khalil, and Rabeea Azmat Copyright © 2017 Muhammad Abdul Mabood Khalil et al. All rights reserved. Retracted: Physical Activity: An Important Adaptative Mechanism for Body-Weight Control Sun, 02 Jul 2017 06:46:45 +0000 International Scholarly Research Notices Copyright © 2017 International Scholarly Research Notices. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Risk Factors for Falls and Fragility Fractures in Community-Dwelling Seniors: A One-Year Prospective Study” Sun, 02 Jul 2017 06:23:37 +0000 Sacha Song, Joy C. MacDermid, and Ruby Grewal Copyright © 2017 Sacha Song et al. All rights reserved. S-100β and Antioxidant Capacity in Cerebrospinal Fluid during and after Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair Tue, 27 Jun 2017 07:09:06 +0000 Background. Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair (TEVAR) has substantially decreased the mortality and major complications from aortic surgery. However, neurological complications such as spinal cord ischemia may still occur after TEVAR. S-100β is a biomarker of central nervous system injury, and oxidant injury plays an important role in neurological injury. In this pilot study, we examined the trends of S-100β and antioxidant capacity in the CSF during and after TEVAR. Methods. We recruited 10 patients who underwent elective TEVAR. CSF samples were collected through a lumbar catheter at the following time points: before the start of surgery () and immediately () and 24 () and 48 hours () after the deployment of the aortic stent. S-100β and CSF antioxidant capacity were analyzed with the use of commercially available kits. Results. We observed that the level of S-100β in all of the subjects at 24 hours after the deployment of the aortic stent () increased. However, the levels of S-100β at and were comparable to the baseline value. The antioxidant capacity remained unchanged. No patient had a clinical neurologic complication. Conclusions. Our observations may indicate biochemical/subclinical central nervous system injury attributable to the deployment of the aortic stent. Koichiro Nandate, Deepak Sharma, Hernando Olivar, Matthew Hallman, Ramesh Ramaiah, Aaron Joffe, Anthony Roche, and Vijay Krishnamoorthy Copyright © 2017 Koichiro Nandate et al. All rights reserved. Sapium ellipticum (Hochst.) Pax Ethanol Leaf Extract Maintains Lipid Homeostasis in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats Wed, 07 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Dyslipidemia is a common metabolic disorder especially in diabetes mellitus (DM). In this study, the ability of Sapium ellipticum (SE) leaf extract to restore lipid homeostasis in streptozotocin-induced diabetes was examined. DM was induced in experimental rats (Wistar strains) using single intraperitoneal dose (55 mg/kg body weight ) of streptozotocin (STZ). Treatment of diabetic rats with SE was oral (p.o), at doses of 400 and 800 mg kg−1 BW, twice daily at 8 h interval for 21 days. Lipid parameters were analyzed in the serum of rats using test kits. SE caused a significant () reduction in STZ-induced hypercholesterolemia in a dose dependent pattern (13.7 and 17.89%). These effects were comparable to that provided by metformin (15.45%), a standard antidiabetic drug. Similar pattern was noted with serum triglycerides (TG) (10.63 and 19.06%) and LDL (31.47 and 25.97%). Adipose tissue TG level was improved to near normal. Besides, the cardiovascular risk predictors in terms of atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) and LDL/HDL ratio were lowered by 57.85 and 44.12%, respectively. However, the extract failed to significantly reverse the STZ-induced decline in serum HDL. Overall, with AIP value of 0.28 and LDL/HDL ratio of 0.91, SE demonstrated the potential to maintain lipid homeostasis in the diabetics. Osasenaga Mcdonald Ighodaro, Oluseyi Adeboye Akinloye, Regina Ngozi Ugbaja, and Samuel Olatunbosun Omotainse Copyright © 2017 Osasenaga Mcdonald Ighodaro et al. All rights reserved. A Five-Year Review of Perforated Peptic Ulcer Disease in Irrua, Nigeria Thu, 01 Jun 2017 09:15:36 +0000 Background. Peptic ulcer perforation is a common cause of emergency admission and surgery. This is the first study that documents the presentation and outcome of management in Irrua, Nigeria. Patients and Method. This is a prospective study of all patients operated on for perforated peptic ulcer between April 1, 2010, and March 31, 2015. A structured questionnaire containing patients’ demographics, operation findings, and outcome was filled upon discharge or death. Results. There were 104 patients. 81 males and 23 females (M : F = 3.5 : 1). The age range was between 17 years and 95 years. The mean age was 48.99 years ± SD 16.1 years. The ratio of gastric to duodenal perforation was 1.88 : 1. Perforation was the first sign of peptic ulcer disease in 62 (59.6%). Pneumoperitoneum was detectable with plain radiographs in 95 (91%) patients. 72 (69.2%) had Graham’s Omentopexy. Death rate was 17.3%. Conclusion. We note that gastric perforation is a far commoner disease in our environment. Perforation is often the first sign of peptic ulcer disease. We identify fasting amongst Christians as a risk factor for perforation. A. E. Dongo, O. Uhunmwagho, E. B. Kesieme, S. U. Eluehike, and E. F. Alufohai Copyright © 2017 A. E. Dongo et al. All rights reserved. DRD4 Gene Polymorphisms as a Risk Factor for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Iranian Population Wed, 24 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Background and Objective. Dopamine dysfunction is known to be associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) is one of the important genes in this pathway. This study intended to investigate the variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) in exon 3 of the DRD4 gene in Iranian children and adolescents. Materials and Methods. In this study, 130 children with ADHD, aged 6–14 years, and 130 healthy children, within the same age range, were enrolled. All children were selected from northwest of Iran which have Caucasian ethnic background and are of a Turkic ethnic group. VNTR polymorphisms of the DRD4 gene were evaluated by PCR using exon 3-specific primers followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Findings. The Hardy-Weinberg principle and Chi-square test showed a significant difference in 4-repetition (4R) alleles between the ADHD (76.2%) and control (53.8%) groups (; ; ). The least percentage of repetition alleles in both groups was 2R. Conclusion. There is a significant correlation between the 4R alleles of DRD4 and ADHD in the northwest of Iran. Seyed Mahmoud Tabatabaei, Shahrokh Amiri, Sara Faghfouri, Seyed Gholamreza Noorazar, Shahin AbdollahiFakhim, and Ali Fakhari Copyright © 2017 Seyed Mahmoud Tabatabaei et al. All rights reserved. Frequency of Neurological Disorders in Bullous Pemphigoid Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study Wed, 24 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Background. Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune subepidermal blistering skin disorder which occurs mostly in the elderly. Several studies have reported an association between BP and neurological disorders (ND). Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between BP and neurological disorders in Iranian patients. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, 87 patients with BP were enrolled. They were compared to 184 controls. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS statistical software version 19. Results. Out of 87 patients with BP, 17 (19.5%) had at least one neurological disease. Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) was the most common neurological disease that was seen in 7 patients (8.0%) in the case group and 4 (2.1%) in the control group. The incidence of CVA was significantly different between BP patients and the control group (). Dementia was observed in 6 patients in the case group (16.8%) and 2 (1.0%) in the control group. The incidence of dementia was significantly different between BP patients and the control group (). In this study, the incidences of Parkinson’s disease (), epilepsy (), and multiple sclerosis () were not statistically significant between the two groups. Conclusion. The incidence of CVA and dementia in patients with BP compared to the control group was significantly higher. Sheida Khosravani, Farhad Handjani, Reyhaneh Alimohammadi, and Nasrin Saki Copyright © 2017 Sheida Khosravani et al. All rights reserved. Formulation and Development of a Validated UV-Spectrophotometric Analytical Method of Rutin Tablet Tue, 16 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Rutin is available in some foods, fruits, and vegetables. It has various beneficial medical effects making it useful in the treatment of various diseases. Rutin is available in different oral dosage forms such as tablets or capsules, widely available in the market. Rutin and many herbal medicines lack quality control due to unavailability of analytical methods. In this study, we formulated rutin tablet and studied its stability using a simple developed analytical method. The dissolution profile of our formulated tablet was also inspected. The results showed that our developed method was linear (), precise (% RSD = 0.026), and accurate (% recovery = 98.55–103.34). The formulated rutin tablet was stable under accelerated conditions as well as room temperature for 150 days (% assay > 91.69). The dissolution profile over 45 minutes of our formulated tablet showed a better dissolution (26.5%) compared with the internationally marketed Rutin® tablet (18.5%). This study can serve as a guideline to companies that manufacture herbal products to improve their formulated herbs and apply validated analytical methods to check the quality of their product. Murad N. Abualhasan, Jumana Mansour, Nidal Jaradat, Abdel Naser Zaid, and Ibrahim Khadra Copyright © 2017 Murad N. Abualhasan et al. All rights reserved. Effectiveness of Positive Thinking Training Program on Nurses’ Quality of Work Life through Smartphone Applications Sun, 14 May 2017 06:59:37 +0000 Aim. Job stress is a part of nurses’ professional life that causes the decrease of the nurses’ job satisfaction and quality of work life. This study aimed to determine the effect of positive thinking via social media applications on the nurses’ quality of work life. Methods. This was a pretest-posttest quasi-experimental study design with a control group. The samples were selected among the nurses in two hospitals in Fasa University of Medical Sciences and divided randomly into two interventional () and control () groups. Positive thinking training through telegrams was sent to the intervention group during a period of 3 months. Data were collected by using Brooks and Anderson’s questionnaire of work life quality and analyzed by SPSS 18. Results. The mean total scores of pretest and posttest in the intervention group improved noticeably and there were significant differences between mean scores of quality of work life in pretest and posttest scores in interventional groups () and in dimensions of work life quality, home life (), work design (), work context (), and work world (). Conclusion. This study concluded that positive thinking training via social media application enhanced nurses’ quality of work life. This study is necessary to carry out on a larger sample size for generalizing findings better. Mohadeseh Motamed-Jahromi, Zhila Fereidouni, and Azizallah Dehghan Copyright © 2017 Mohadeseh Motamed-Jahromi et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Comparative Study on the Efficacy of Anorganic Bovine Bone (Bio-Oss) and Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite (Ostim) in Maxillary Sinus Floor Augmentation” Thu, 11 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Adileh Shirmohammadi, Leila Roshangar, Mohammad Taghi Chitsazi, Reza Pourabbas, Masoumeh Faramarzi, and Nasrin Rahmanpour Copyright © 2017 Adileh Shirmohammadi et al. All rights reserved. A Consistent Definition of Phase Resetting Using Hilbert Transform Wed, 03 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 A phase resetting curve (PRC) measures the transient change in the phase of a neural oscillator subject to an external perturbation. The PRC encapsulates the dynamical response of a neural oscillator and, as a result, it is often used for predicting phase-locked modes in neural networks. While phase is a fundamental concept, it has multiple definitions that may lead to contradictory results. We used the Hilbert Transform (HT) to define the phase of the membrane potential oscillations and HT amplitude to estimate the PRC of a single neural oscillator. We found that HT’s amplitude and its corresponding instantaneous frequency are very sensitive to membrane potential perturbations. We also found that the phase shift of HT amplitude between the pre- and poststimulus cycles gives an accurate estimate of the PRC. Moreover, HT phase does not suffer from the shortcomings of voltage threshold or isochrone methods and, as a result, gives accurate and reliable estimations of phase resetting. Sorinel A. Oprisan Copyright © 2017 Sorinel A. Oprisan. All rights reserved. Laboratory Electrical Resistivity Studies on Cement Stabilized Soil Sun, 30 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Electrical resistivity measurement of freshly prepared uncured and cured soil-cement materials is done and the correlations between the factors controlling the performance of soil-cement and electrical resistivity are discussed in this paper. Conventional quality control of soil-cement quite often involves wastage of a lot of material, if it does not meet the strength criteria. In this study, it is observed that, in soil-cement, resistivity follows a similar trend as unconfined compressive strength, with increase in cement content and time of curing. Quantitative relations developed for predicting 7-day strength of soil-cement mix, using resistivity of the soil-cement samples at freshly prepared state, after 1-hour curing help to decide whether the soil-cement mix meets the desired strength and performance criteria. This offers the option of the soil-cement mix to be upgraded (possibly with additional cement) in its fresh state itself, if it does not fulfil the performance criteria, rather than wasting the material after hardening. Nimi Ann Vincent, R. Shivashankar, K. N. Lokesh, and Jinu Mary Jacob Copyright © 2017 Nimi Ann Vincent et al. All rights reserved. Performance of Sorghum Varieties under Variable Rainfall in Central Tanzania Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Rainfall variability has a significant impact on crop production with manifestations in frequent crop failure in semiarid areas. This study used the parameterized APSIM crop model to investigate how rainfall variability may affect yields of improved sorghum varieties based on long-term historical rainfall and projected climate. Analyses of historical rainfall indicate a mix of nonsignificant and significant trends on the onset, cessation, and length of the growing season. The study confirmed that rainfall variability indeed affects yields of improved sorghum varieties. Further analyses of simulated sorghum yields based on seasonal rainfall distribution indicate the concurrence of lower grain yields with the 10-day dry spells during the cropping season. Simulation results for future sorghum response, however, show that impacts of rainfall variability on sorghum will be overridden by temperature increase. We conclude that, in the event where harms imposed by moisture stress in the study area are not abated, even improved sorghum varieties are likely to perform poorly. Barnabas M. Msongaleli, S. D. Tumbo, N. I. Kihupi, and Filbert B. Rwehumbiza Copyright © 2017 Barnabas M. Msongaleli et al. All rights reserved.