International Scholarly Research Notices https://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Orthodontic Management in Aggressive Periodontitis Thu, 16 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2017/8098154/ Aggressive periodontitis is a type of periodontitis with early onset and rapid progression and mostly affecting young adults who occupy a large percentage of orthodontic patients. The role of the orthodontist is important in screening the disease, making a provisional diagnosis, and referring it to a periodontist for immediate treatment. The orthodontist should be aware of the disease not only before starting the appliance therapy, but also during and after the active mechanotherapy. The orthodontic treatment plan, biomechanics, and appliance system may need to be modified to deal with the teeth having reduced periodontal support. With proper force application and oral hygiene maintenance, orthodontic tooth movement is possible without any deleterious effect in the tooth with reduced bone support. With proper motivation and interdisciplinary approach, orthodontic treatment is possible in patients with controlled aggressive periodontitis. Rajesh Gyawali and Bhagabat Bhattarai Copyright © 2017 Rajesh Gyawali and Bhagabat Bhattarai. All rights reserved. Consistency Test between Scoring Systems for Predicting Outcomes of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in a Saudi Population Treated with Imatinib Mon, 13 Feb 2017 07:52:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2017/1076493/ Inconsistency in prognostic scores occurs where two different risk categories are applied to the same chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patient. This study evaluated common scoring systems for identifying risk groups based on patients’ molecular responses to select the best prognostic score when conflict prognoses are obtained from patient profiles. We analyzed 104 patients diagnosed with CML and treated at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Saudi Arabia, who were monitored for major molecular response (achieving a BCR-ABL1 transcript level equal to or less than 0.1%) by Real-Time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RQ-PCR), and their risk profiles were identified using Sokal, Hasford, EUTOS, and ELTS scores based on the patients’ clinical and hematological parameters at diagnosis. Our results found that the Hasford score outperformed other scores in identifying risk categories for conflict groups, with an accuracy of 63%. Haneen R. Banjar and Enaam Alsobhi Copyright © 2017 Haneen R. Banjar and Enaam Alsobhi. All rights reserved. Translation and Validation of Modified Dental Anxiety Scale: The Nepali Version Sun, 29 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2017/5495643/ Introduction. For proper management of anxious dental patients it is imperative to assess their levels of dental anxiety before treatment. Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) is the most commonly used questionnaire to assess dental anxiety. But a Nepali version of MDAS is still lacking. Hence, the objective of this study was to develop a reliable and valid Nepali version of MDAS. Materials and Methods. The English version of the MDAS was translated into Nepali following a forward and backward translation process. Following pretesting and cognitive interviewing a final version of Nepali questionnaire was obtained. One hundred and fifty patients attending Department of Orthodontics completed the Nepali version of MDAS questionnaire at their convenience. Also, patients were asked to rate their overall anxiety on a 100 mm visual analog scale (VAS). A test-retest of the questionnaire was performed with 30 patients after 2 weeks. Results. Cronbach’s alpha value of the Nepali version of MDAS was 0.775. The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient between test and retest was 0.872. Spearman’s correlation coefficient between the total MDAS score and VAS score was 0.838. Conclusion. The translated Nepali version of MDAS is a reliable and valid instrument to measure the dental anxiety of Nepali patients. Jamal Giri, Prabhat Ranjan Pokharel, Rajesh Gyawali, and Bhushan Bhattarai Copyright © 2017 Jamal Giri et al. All rights reserved. Erratum to “Development of a Rapid and Precise Method of Digital Image Analysis to Quantify Canopy Density and Structural Complexity” Wed, 18 Jan 2017 08:34:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2017/3493691/ Anne E. Goodenough and Andrew S. Goodenough Copyright © 2017 Anne E. Goodenough and Andrew S. Goodenough. All rights reserved. A Tool to Simulate the Transmission, Reception, and Execution of Interactive TV Applications Wed, 18 Jan 2017 07:57:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2017/1834907/ The emergence of Interactive Digital Television (iDTV) opened a set of technological possibilities that go beyond those offered by conventional TV. Among these opportunities we can highlight interactive contents that run together with linear TV program (television service where the viewer has to watch a scheduled TV program at the particular time it is offered and on the particular channel it is presented on). However, developing interactive contents for this new platform is not as straightforward as, for example, developing Internet applications. One of the options to make this development process easier and safer is to use an iDTV simulator. However, after having investigated some of the existing iDTV simulation environments, we have found a limitation: these simulators mainly present solutions focused on the TV receiver, whose interactive content must be loaded in advance by the programmer to a local repository (e.g., Hard Drive, USB). Therefore, in this paper, we propose a tool, named BiS (Broadcast iDTV content Simulator), which makes possible a broader solution for the simulation of interactive contents. It allows simulating the transmission of interactive content along with the linear TV program (simulating the transmission of content over the air and in broadcast to the receivers). To enable this, we defined a generic and easy-to-customize communication protocol that was implemented in the tool. The proposed environment differs from others because it allows simulating reception of both linear content and interactive content while running Java applications to allow such a content presentation. Manoel Carvalho Marques Neto, Raoni Kulesza, Thiago Rodrigues, Felipe A. L. Machado, and Celso A. S. Santos Copyright © 2017 Manoel Carvalho Marques Neto et al. All rights reserved. Efficient Data Transfer Rate and Speed of Secured Ethernet Interface System Tue, 27 Dec 2016 09:17:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2016/9458627/ Embedded systems are extensively used in home automation systems, small office systems, vehicle communication systems, and health service systems. The services provided by these systems are available on the Internet and these services need to be protected. Security features like IP filtering, UDP protection, or TCP protection need to be implemented depending on the specific application used by the device. Every device on the Internet must have network interface. This paper proposes the design of the embedded Secured Ethernet Interface System to protect the service available on the Internet against the SYN flood attack. In this experimental study, Secured Ethernet Interface System is customized to protect the web service against the SYN flood attack. Secured Ethernet Interface System is implemented on ALTERA Stratix IV FPGA as a system on chip and uses the modified SYN flood attack protection method. The experimental results using Secured Ethernet Interface System indicate increase in number of genuine clients getting service from the server, considerable improvement in the data transfer rate, and better response time during the SYN flood attack. Shaila Ghanti and G. M. Naik Copyright © 2016 Shaila Ghanti and G. M. Naik. All rights reserved. Returning for HIV Test Results: A Systematic Review of Barriers and Facilitators Thu, 15 Dec 2016 12:55:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2016/6304820/ This systematic review aims to identify factors that facilitate or hinder the return for HIV test results. Four electronic databases were searched. Two independent reviewers selected eligible publications based on inclusion/exclusion criteria. Quantitative studies published since 1985 were included. Thirty-six studies were included in the final review. Individual level barriers included sociodemographic characteristics, such as being a male, of young age and low education level, risk behaviours such as injecting drugs, having multiple sexual partners, and psychosocial factors. Older age, higher education level, being a woman, having high self-esteem, having coping skills, and holding insurance coverage were identified as facilitators. Interpersonal barriers and facilitators were linked to risk behaviours of sexual partners. Contextual barriers included essentially the HIV testing center and its characteristics. This review identified the most important factors that need to be addressed to ensure that people return for their HIV test results. Patrice Ngangue, Emmanuelle Bedard, Hervé Tchala Vignon Zomahoun, Julie Payne-Gagnon, Claudia Fournier, Jeannette Afounde, and Marie-Pierre Gagnon Copyright © 2016 Patrice Ngangue et al. All rights reserved. A New Class of Almost Ricci Solitons and Their Physical Interpretation Sun, 04 Dec 2016 12:33:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2016/4903520/ We establish a link between a connection symmetry, called conformal collineation, and almost Ricci soliton (in particular Ricci soliton) in reducible Ricci symmetric semi-Riemannian manifolds. As a physical application, by investigating the kinematic and dynamic properties of almost Ricci soliton manifolds, we present a physical model of imperfect fluid spacetimes. This model gives a general relation between the physical quantities of the matter tensor of the field equations and does not provide any exact solution. Therefore, we propose further study on finding exact solutions of our viscous fluid physical model for which it is required that the fluid velocity vector be tilted. We also suggest two open problems. K. L. Duggal Copyright © 2016 K. L. Duggal. All rights reserved. The Association of Hepatitis C Serological Status with Several Risk Factors in Indonesia Wed, 16 Nov 2016 08:46:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2016/3018135/ Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver commonly caused by viral infection such as hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E but it is also possible by other causes. Infection with hepatitis C virus is also referred to as a disguise because the early infection is often asymptomatic that often goes undetected. This study aims at determining the several associated risk factors with hepatitis C serological status. The study design is cross-sectional. The biomedical data collection was carried out in 33 provinces in Indonesia with a population in urban blocks, census in Indonesia, where the sample is all household members over the age of one year from selected households by signing the informed consent. Total block census in selected urban area is about 971-block census with a total sample of 15.536 households. The results showed that there is a correlation between hepatitis C serological status and demographic group and that the age and occupation groups showed significant value obtained at 0.001 (OR = 3.27, CI = 1.84–5.81) and 0.209 (OR = 0.23, CI = 0.59–0.94). In conclusion, there are risk factors such as age and occupation that have a correlation of being infected with hepatitis C serological status. Noer Endah Pracoyo, Made Ayu Lely Suratri, Roselinda Roselinda, and Vivi Setiawaty Copyright © 2016 Noer Endah Pracoyo et al. All rights reserved. The Impact of Duodenal Diverticuli and the Execution of Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreaticography Wed, 02 Nov 2016 09:50:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2016/5026289/ Introduction. Duodenal diverticuli alter the anatomy of the papillary region and can make an ERCP difficult. Aim. To study the outcome of ERCP in cases of duodenal diverticuli. Patients and Methods. Consecutive ERCPs in a period of 24 years were included. Endoscopy reports were studied for presence of diverticuli. Success of the procedure and findings were noted. Clinical records were searched for clinical presentation of the patient. Patients without duodenal diverticuli were used as comparison. Results. 2795 procedures were done in 2092 patients. Of these, 211 (10%) had diverticuli. Diverticuli occurred significantly more often in women (). ERCP was significantly more often inconclusive in cases of a diverticulum, 12.8% versus 6.3%, . In cases of a successful ERCP, patients with diverticuli showed more often no abnormalities in the bile duct, 26% versus 17%, . In 64% of cases, the reason for ERCP was cholestasis. There was no significant difference in presence of stones or cholangitis. Biliary pancreatitis was seen more often in patients without diverticuli, 4.4% versus 1.4%, . This was also the case for malignancies, 18.5% versus 6.6%, . Conclusion. It is concluded that duodenal diverticuli can be responsible for cholestasis. Presence of a diverticulum in the duodenum makes the ERCP procedure more complex. R. J. L. F. Loffeld and P. E. P. Dekkers Copyright © 2016 R. J. L. F. Loffeld and P. E. P. Dekkers. All rights reserved. The Impact of Variable Wind Shear Coefficients on Risk Reduction of Wind Energy Projects Sun, 30 Oct 2016 13:54:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2016/5790464/ Estimation of wind speed at proposed hub heights is typically achieved using a wind shear exponent or wind shear coefficient (WSC), variation in wind speed as a function of height. The WSC is subject to temporal variation at low and high frequencies, ranging from diurnal and seasonal variations to disturbance caused by weather patterns; however, in many cases, it is assumed that the WSC remains constant. This assumption creates significant error in resource assessment, increasing uncertainty in projects and potentially significantly impacting the ability to control gird connected wind generators. This paper contributes to the body of knowledge relating to the evaluation and assessment of wind speed, with particular emphasis on the development of techniques to improve the accuracy of estimated wind speed above measurement height. It presents an evaluation of the use of a variable wind shear coefficient methodology based on a distribution of wind shear coefficients which have been implemented in real time. The results indicate that a VWSC provides a more accurate estimate of wind at hub height, ranging from 41% to 4% reduction in root mean squared error (RMSE) between predicted and actual wind speeds when using a variable wind shear coefficient at heights ranging from 33% to 100% above the highest actual wind measurement. Kenneth W. Corscadden, Allan Thomson, Behrang Yoonesi, and Josiah McNutt Copyright © 2016 Kenneth W. Corscadden et al. All rights reserved. Studies on Shokyo, Kanzo, and Keihi in Kakkonto Medicine on Prostaglandin E2 Production in Lipopolysaccharide-Treated Human Gingival Fibroblasts Thu, 13 Oct 2016 14:25:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2016/9351787/ We previously demonstrated that a kampo medicine, kakkonto, decreases lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production by human gingival fibroblasts. In this study, we examined the herbs constituting kakkonto that exhibit this effect. Shokyo strongly and concentration dependently and kanzo and keihi moderately decreased LPS-induced PGE2 production. Shokyo did not alter cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity, cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), annexin 1 and COX-2 expression, and LPS-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. Kanzo inhibited COX-2 activity but increased annexin 1 and COX-2 expression and did not alter LPS-induced ERK phosphorylation. Keihi inhibited COX-2 activity and LPS-induced ERK phosphorylation but slightly increased COX-2 expression and did not alter cPLA2 and annexin 1 expression. These results suggest that the mechanism of shokyo is through the inhibition of cPLA2 activity, and that of kanzo and keihi is through the inhibition of COX-2 activity and indirect inhibition of cPLA2 activity. Therefore, it is possible that shokyo and kakkonto are clinically useful for the improvement of inflammatory responses. Toshiaki Ara and Norio Sogawa Copyright © 2016 Toshiaki Ara and Norio Sogawa. All rights reserved. Retracted: The Impact of Graft Nephrectomy on Subsequent Transplants: Multivariate Analysis of Risk Factors for Second Graft Loss and for Multiple Transplantations–A Single-Center Retrospective Study Wed, 12 Oct 2016 07:22:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2016/9782049/ International Scholarly Research Notices Copyright © 2016 International Scholarly Research Notices. All rights reserved. Primary Hyperparathyroidism and Pancreatitis: A Rare Association with Multiple Facets Tue, 27 Sep 2016 13:30:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2016/7294274/ Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is rarely associated with the occurrence of acute or chronic pancreatitis. Hypercalcemia plays a major role in the pathogenesis. We report five cases of pancreatitis revealing PHPT. Patients and Methods. This is a retrospective study of 4 years, including all patients admitted to intensive care unit or gastroenterology department, for an acute or chronic pancreatitis revealing primary hyperparathyroidism. Results. We included 5 patients, all female, with mean age 54 years [40–76 years]. The PHPT was in all cases revealed by acute pancreatitis (AP). This one was oedematous in four cases and severe in one case. It occurred twice in calcified chronic pancreatitis (CCP). There was hypercalcemia in all cases. The PHPT was associated with a high rate of parathyroid hormone in 4 cases. The secreting lesion was an adenoma in 5 cases. Two patients had in addition bilateral renal calcifications. The outcome was favorable in 4 patients among whom 3 have had parathyroid surgery. A death was noted by superinfection of necrosis in the case of severe AP. Conclusion. The occurrence of pancreatitis during hyperparathyroidism is rare. Normal or elevated calcemia during acute or chronic pancreatitis should always get attention. I. Diallo, C. A. Fall, B. Ndiaye, M. Mbaye, I. Diedhiou, A. R. Ndiaye, P. S. Diawara, F. Fall, P. S. Mbaye, and S. B. Gning Copyright © 2016 I. Diallo et al. All rights reserved. Estimation of Cyclic Shift with Delayed Correlation and Matched Filtering in Time Domain Cyclic-SLM for PAPR Reduction Mon, 26 Sep 2016 10:59:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2016/8506986/ Time domain cyclic-selective mapping (TDC-SLM) reduces the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) in OFDM systems while the amounts of cyclic shifts are required to recover the transmitted signal in a receiver. One of the critical issues of the SLM scheme is sending the side information (SI) which reduces the throughputs in wireless OFDM systems. The proposed scheme implements delayed correlation and matched filtering (DC-MF) to estimate the amounts of the cyclic shifts in the receiver. In the proposed scheme, the DC-MF is placed after the frequency domain equalization (FDE) to improve the accuracy of cyclic shift estimation. The accuracy rate of the propose scheme reaches 100% at = 5 dB and the bit error rate (BER) improves by 0.2 dB as compared with the conventional TDC-SLM. The BER performance of the proposed scheme is also better than that of the conventional TDC-SLM even though a nonlinear high power amplifier is assumed. Panca Dewi Pamungkasari and Yukitoshi Sanada Copyright © 2016 Panca Dewi Pamungkasari and Yukitoshi Sanada. All rights reserved. Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness Practice and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women, Northwest Ethiopia Sun, 18 Sep 2016 13:04:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2016/8727365/ Background. Little is known about birth preparedness and complication readiness (BPCR) plan in resource limited settings to decrease maternal mortality. Therefore, this study was done to assess the status of BPCR and associated factors among pregnant women in South Wollo, Northwest Ethiopia, by involving 819 pregnant women from March to April, 2014. Data were collected by using pretested interviewer administered questionnaire and analyzed using a computer program of SPSS version 20.00. Results. Pregnant women who were prepared for at least three elements of BPCR were 24.1%. Pregnant women knowing at least three key danger signs during pregnancy, delivery, and postnatal period were 23.2%, 22.6%, and 9.6%, respectively. Women having secondary education and higher were 6.20 (95% CI = [1.36, 28.120]) times more likely to be prepared than illiterates. Women having a lifetime history of stillbirth [5.80 (1.13, 29.63)], attending ANC for last child pregnancy [5.44 (2.07, 14.27)], participating in community BPCR group discussion [4.36 (1.17, 16.26)], and having their male partner involved in BPCR counseling during ANC follow-up [4.45 (1.95, 10.16)] were more likely to be prepared. Conclusions. BPCR was very low and should be strengthened through health communication by involving partner in BPCR counseling. Yewondwossen Bitew, Worku Awoke, and Simachew Chekol Copyright © 2016 Yewondwossen Bitew et al. All rights reserved. Generalized Robertson-Walker Space-Time Admitting Evolving Null Horizons Related to a Black Hole Event Horizon Sun, 18 Sep 2016 11:24:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2016/9312525/ A new technique is used to study a family of time-dependent null horizons, called “Evolving Null Horizons” (ENHs), of generalized Robertson-Walker (GRW) space-time such that the metric satisfies a kinematic condition. This work is different from our early papers on the same issue where we used -splitting space-time but only some special subcases of GRW space-time have this formalism. Also, in contrast to previous work, we have proved that each member of ENHs is totally umbilical in . Finally, we show that there exists an ENH which is always a null horizon evolving into a black hole event horizon and suggest some open problems. K. L. Duggal Copyright © 2016 K. L. Duggal. All rights reserved. Retracted: Growth Responses and Leaf Antioxidant Metabolism of Grass Pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) Genotypes under Salinity Stress Thu, 01 Sep 2016 08:45:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2016/2954587/ International Scholarly Research Notices Copyright © 2016 International Scholarly Research Notices. All rights reserved. Automatic Analysis of Retinal Vascular Parameters for Detection of Diabetes in Indian Patients with No Retinopathy Sign Mon, 08 Aug 2016 06:21:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2016/8423289/ This study has investigated the association between retinal vascular parameters with type II diabetes in Indian population with no observable diabetic retinopathy. It has introduced two new retinal vascular parameters: total number of branching angles (TBA) and average acute branching angles (ABA) as potential biomarkers of diabetes in an explanatory model. A total number of 180 retinal images (two (left and right) × two (ODC and MC) × 45 subjects (13 diabetics and 32 nondiabetics)) were analysed. Stepwise linear regression analysis was performed to model the association between type II diabetes with the best subset of explanatory variables (predictors), consisting of retinal vascular parameters and patients’ demographic information. value of the estimated coefficients () indicated that, at α level of 0.05, the newly introduced retinal vascular parameters, that is, TBA and ABA together with CRAE, mean tortuosity, SD of branching angle, and VB, are related to type II diabetes when there is no observable sign of retinopathy. Behzad Aliahmad, Dinesh Kant Kumar, and Rajeev Jain Copyright © 2016 Behzad Aliahmad et al. All rights reserved. Estimating Soil Moisture Distributions across Small Farm Fields with ALOS/PALSAR Tue, 26 Jul 2016 11:29:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2016/4203783/ The ALOS (advanced land observing satellite) has an active microwave sensor, PALSAR (phased array L-band synthetic aperture radar), which has a fine resolution of 6.5 m. Because of the fine resolution, PALSAR provides the possibility of estimating soil moisture distributions in small farmlands. Making such small-scale estimates has not been available with traditional satellite remote sensing techniques. In this study, the relationship between microwave backscattering coefficient () measured with PALSAR and ground-based soil moisture was determined to investigate the performance of PALSAR for estimating soil moisture distribution in a small-scale farmland. On the ground at a cabbage field in Japan in 2008, the soil moisture distribution of multiple soil layers was measured using time domain reflectometry when the ALOS flew over the field. Soil moisture in the 0–20 cm soil layer showed the largest correlation coefficient with (). The values also showed a strong correlation with the ground surface coverage ratio by cabbage plants. Our results suggested that PALSAR could estimate soil moisture distribution of the 0–20 cm soil layer across a bare field and a crop coverage ratio when crops were planted. Yuki Kojima, Kazuo Oki, Kosuke Noborio, and Masaru Mizoguchi Copyright © 2016 Yuki Kojima et al. All rights reserved. Risky Sexual Behaviors and Associated Factors among Jiga High School and Preparatory School Students, Amhara Region, Ethiopia Wed, 15 Jun 2016 11:59:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2016/4315729/ Background. Young people constitute a large number of population worldwide, and majority of this population group lives in developing countries. They are at high risk of engaging in risky sexual behaviors. These risk sexual behaviors predispose youths to several sexual and reproductive health problems like STIs, HIV, unwanted pregnancy, and abortion. So, this study was conducted to assess the magnitude of risky sexual behaviors and associated factors among Jiga high school and preparatory school students, northwest Ethiopia. Methodology. Institutional based cross-sectional study design was conducted among Jiga town high school and preparatory school students. A total of 311 students were included in the study. Systematic random sampling method was used to select study participants. Data was entered using EpiData version 3.1 and it was exported to SPSS version 22 for further analysis. Descriptive analysis and bivariate and multivariate analysis were also calculated to determine factors associated with risky sexual behavior. Result. Forty-eight (16%) of respondents reported that they had sexual intercourse. From those who start sex, 44 (14.7%) were involved in risky sexual behavior which could predispose them to sexual and reproductive health problems. More than half, 27 (56.3%), of respondents first sexual intercourse was before their eighteenth birthday. The mean age and SD of fist sexual initiation were 17.2 years old and 1.35 years, respectively. Factors associated with risky sexual behavior include respondents between the ages of 20 and 23 (AOR: 5, 95%, CI: 1.59–15.98), drinking alcohol (AOR: 2.48, 95% CI: 1.13–5.41), and having poor knowledge towards HIV/AIDS (AOR: 4.53, 95%, CI: 2.06–9.94). Conclusion. A large number of in-school youths are involved in risky sexual behaviors like early sexual initiation, having multiple sexual partners, inconsistence use of condom, and having sex with high risk partner (CSWs). Age of respondents, alcohol drinking, and poor knowledge towards HIV/AIDS were factors associated with risky sexual behavior. School and community based programs in reducing substance abuse among youths and increasing their knowledge towards HIV/AIDS are important. Getachew Mullu Kassa, Genet Degu, Meseret Yitayew, Worku Misganaw, Mikiyas Muche, Tiguaded Demelash, Meless Mesele, and Melat Ayehu Copyright © 2016 Getachew Mullu Kassa et al. All rights reserved. Ants Can Expect the Time of an Event on Basis of Previous Experiences Tue, 14 Jun 2016 10:07:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2016/9473128/ Working on three ant species of the genus Myrmica, M. ruginodis, M. rubra, and M. sabuleti, we showed that foragers can expect the subsequent time at which food will be available on the basis of the previous times at which food was present. The ants acquired this expectative ability right after having experienced two time shifts of food delivery. Moreover, the ants’ learning score appeared to be a logarithmic function of time (i.e., of the number of training days). This ability to expect subsequent times at which an event will occur may be an advantageous ethological trait. Marie-Claire Cammaerts and Roger Cammaerts Copyright © 2016 Marie-Claire Cammaerts and Roger Cammaerts. All rights reserved. Minimally Invasive Treatment of Infrabony Periodontal Defects Using Dual-Wavelength Laser Therapy Thu, 02 Jun 2016 08:04:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2016/7175919/ Introduction. Surgical management of infrabony defects is an invasive procedure, frequently requiring the use of adjunctive material such as grafts or biologics, which is time-consuming and associated with expense and morbidity to the patient. Lasers in periodontal regeneration have been reported in the literature, with each wavelength having potential benefits through different laser-tissue interactions. The purpose of this case series was to assess the efficacy of a new dual-wavelength protocol in the management of infrabony defects. Materials and Methods. 32 defects (one in each patient) were treated using ultrasonic debridement, followed by flapless application of Erbium, Chromium:Yttrium, Scandium, Gallium, Garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser (wavelength 2780 nm), and final application of diode laser (wavelength 940 nm). Pocket depths (PD) were measured after 6 months and repeat radiographs taken after one year. Results. The mean baseline PD was 8.8 mm (range 6–15 mm) and 6 months later was 2.4 mm (range 2–4 mm), with mean PD reduction being 6.4 ± 1.7 mm (range 3–12 mm). There was a significant gain in relative linear bone height (apical extent of bone), with mean percentage bone fill of 39.7 ± 41.2% and 53% of sites showing at least 40% infill of bone. Conclusion. The results compare favourably with traditional surgery and require further validation through randomised clinical controlled trials. Rana Al-Falaki, Francis J. Hughes, and Reena Wadia Copyright © 2016 Rana Al-Falaki et al. All rights reserved. Control of Drug Dissolution Rate from Film Dosage Forms Containing Valsartan Mon, 23 May 2016 07:43:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2016/5135173/ Film dosage forms (FDs) containing valsartan (VST), a popular antihypertensive drug, were prepared using a casting method with sodium alginate and other polysaccharides as the film base. Drug dissolution profiles of the FDs were investigated in limited medium. The FDs were 170–200 μm thick and were easy to handle. All FDs immediately swelled and disintegrated in the medium. About 23% of the VST incorporated into the FD prepared with 1.5% sodium alginate dissolved at 5 min. The initial dissolution rate of VST increased upon the addition of chitosan to the film base; this effect was not observed in the case of chitin. On the other hand, the rate apparently decreased upon modification with alginic acid. In addition, the solubility of VST in the dissolution medium was changed by the addition of chitosan or alginic acid. FDs prepared with polysaccharides are useful for simplifying the administration of drugs to patients, and the drug dissolution rate from FDs can be controlled by modification. Yoshifumi Murata, Kyoko Kofuji, and Chieko Maida Copyright © 2016 Yoshifumi Murata et al. All rights reserved. Prevalence and Perspectives of Complementary and Alternative Medicine among University Students in Atlanta, Newcastle upon Tyne, and New Delhi Tue, 03 May 2016 09:48:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2016/9309534/ Objective. A cross-cultural comparative study was developed that surveyed university students in Atlanta (United States), New Delhi (India), and Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom) to understand the prevalence and perspectives of CAM in three urban societies with different healthcare systems. Design. Surveys were sent to students in the three aforementioned cities. Survey distribution occurred over 6 months from May to November 2015. A total of 314 surveys were received. Results. Dietary and vitamin supplements had the highest prevalence collectively (), followed by meditation, yoga, and massage. Commentary analysis showed the importance of science and evidence in justifying CAM practice. Conclusions. Matching the most prevalent practices with their designated NCCAM categories suggested that the students were attracted to biologically based, body-based, and mind-body practices as the central themes of attraction. Selected and prevalent CAM practices suggested the students’ desire to maintain physical and mental fitness. Access to healthcare may have influence on the prevalence of CAM. Indian students were more likely to view CAM as a viable alternative to conventional medicine. Kritika Subramanian and Inuka Midha Copyright © 2016 Kritika Subramanian and Inuka Midha. All rights reserved. Nursing in Ghana: A Search for Florence Nightingale in an African City Thu, 24 Mar 2016 11:03:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2016/9754845/ Nursing in Ghana is a crucial subject that permeates almost every issue in the society especially the field of hospital care. To a large extent, the frontiers of nursing have expanded since the time of Florence Nightingale. Globally some studies have been done to study nursing icons like her. The values in nursing practice however continue to preoccupy our minds. The need to accentuate the gains made by historical figures in nursing in present times as well as the nature of interactions between practitioners and patients continues to be of paramount concern to many across the globe and Ghana in particular. This study does an analysis of existing literature on Florence Nightingale and the nature of nursing in Ghana from the colonial times. Additionally, it analyzes responses concerning the activities of nurses and their interactions with patients in Kumasi. The varied information has been thematically pieced together to make inferences that are of great interest to nursing practitioners, policy makers, administrators, and educators among others. The findings to the study suggest among other things that the challenges faced by the nursing institution in modern times are similar to those of the earlier period. The study calls for the emulation of the positive ideas of Florence Nightingale to promote the interest of patients, a core objective championed by a revered nurse. Samuel Adu-Gyamfi and Edward Brenya Copyright © 2016 Samuel Adu-Gyamfi and Edward Brenya. All rights reserved. Guidelines for Reporting Medical Research: A Critical Appraisal Tue, 22 Mar 2016 15:55:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2016/1346026/ As a response to a low quality of reporting of medical research, guidelines for several different types of study design have been developed to secure accurate reporting and transparency for reviewers and readers from the scientific community. Herein, we review and discuss the six most widely accepted and used guidelines: PRISMA, CONSORT, STROBE, MOOSE, STARD, and SPIRIT. It is concluded that the implementation of these guidelines has led to only a moderate improvement in the quality of the reporting of medical research. There is still much work to be done to achieve accurate and transparent reporting of medical research findings. Mathilde Johansen and Simon Francis Thomsen Copyright © 2016 Mathilde Johansen and Simon Francis Thomsen. All rights reserved. Effectiveness of a Nutrition Education Program to Improve Children’s Chewing Habits Thu, 10 Mar 2016 07:38:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2016/4304265/ This quasi-experimental study determined whether the nutrition education program we developed to promote chewing food properly influenced children’s chewing habits successfully. Four kindergarten classes in Japan (150 children, aged 5-6 years) were studied; one class received the educational program in the classroom and at home (Group A) and three classes received the program in the classroom only (Group B). The educational program was integrated into the classes’ daily curriculum for five weeks. It included storytelling with large picture books, chewing consciously while eating lunch, singing a song with gestures, and greetings before and after meals (both groups). Group A also used a paper textbook and was provided information by the leaflet to encourage guardians to implement the program at home. Chewing habits before and after intervention were evaluated: (1) guardians completed seven questionnaire items related to chewing habits and chewing movement and (2) the number of chews and time spent eating the test meal were measured by a portable chewing sensor. Both approaches improved the children’s chewing habits; however, no difference was found between the two groups. We concluded that this intervention could be used to improve chewing habits in young children even without active involvement of their guardians. Nanae Sato, Fumi Hayashi, and Nobuo Yoshiike Copyright © 2016 Nanae Sato et al. All rights reserved. Exchange Transfusion for Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia in Johannesburg, South Africa, from 2006 to 2011 Mon, 29 Feb 2016 10:50:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2016/1268149/ Background. Severe hyperbilirubinaemia requiring exchange transfusion has become less common in recent years; however, kernicterus still occurs. The aim of this study was to review babies undergoing exchange transfusion for severe hyperbilirubinaemia in a Johannesburg hospital. Methodology. This was a retrospective review of babies who required exchange transfusion in both the neonatal and the paediatric wards from June 1, 2006, to December 31, 2011. Results. There were 64 patients who underwent 67 exchange transfusions. Isoimmune haemolysis (both Rh and ABO incompatibility) was the cause of jaundice in 9/64 (14%). Most babies who underwent exchange transfusion were sick or preterm and were admitted in hospital after birth (38/64; 59.5%); three of these babies died, but not during the exchange transfusion (3/38; 7.9%); all three had signs suggestive of neonatal sepsis. The remaining 26 babies (40.6%) were readmitted to the paediatric wards for exchange transfusion. Six of these babies (6/26; 23.0%) had signs of kernicterus. The most significant complication of exchange transfusion was apnoea requiring mechanical ventilation in three patients (3/64; 4.6%). Conclusion. Despite a relatively low number of babies undergoing exchange transfusion, kernicterus still occurs and must be prevented. Proper protocols for screening and management of severe hyperbilirubinaemia need to be enforced. Daynia E. Ballot and Gilbert Rugamba Copyright © 2016 Daynia E. Ballot and Gilbert Rugamba. All rights reserved. Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Traditional Cosmetics Sold in Tunisian Local Markets Mon, 22 Feb 2016 12:44:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2016/6296458/ This study was undertaken in order to determine heavy metal contents in twelve () henna brands and eleven () kohl products. An analytical test was performed for Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn in henna and kohl products using atomic absorption spectrophotometery. The overall mean concentrations of heavy metals in henna varied between 1.2 and 8.9 μg g−1 for Pb; 0.8 and 18.6 μg g−1 for Cd; 0.5 μg g−1 and 3.3 μg g−1 for Cu; and 3.7 μg g−1 and 90.0 μg g−1 for Zn. As for kohl products, Pb concentrations ranged between 51.1 μg g−1 and 4839.5 μg g−1, Cd concentrations ranged between 1.0 μg g−1 and 158.6 μg g−1, Cu concentrations ranged between 2.5 μg g−1 and 162.5 μg g−1, and Zn concentrations ranged between 0.7 μg g−1 and 185.0 μg g−1. The results of our study revealed that Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn contents in investigated samples were high, making from the prolonged use of such products a potential threat to human health. Therefore, major quality controls are recommended in order to enforce acceptable limits of potential contaminants in cosmetics and good manufacturing practice. Mohamed Anouar Nouioui, Salah Mahjoubi, Asma Ghorbel, Marouen Ben Haj Yahia, Dorra Amira, Hayet Ghorbel, and Abderrazek Hedhili Copyright © 2016 Mohamed Anouar Nouioui et al. All rights reserved.