International Scholarly Research Notices https://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. DRD4 Gene Polymorphisms as a Risk Factor for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Iranian Population Wed, 24 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2017/2494537/ Background and Objective. Dopamine dysfunction is known to be associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) is one of the important genes in this pathway. This study intended to investigate the variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) in exon 3 of the DRD4 gene in Iranian children and adolescents. Materials and Methods. In this study, 130 children with ADHD, aged 6–14 years, and 130 healthy children, within the same age range, were enrolled. All children were selected from northwest of Iran which have Caucasian ethnic background and are of a Turkic ethnic group. VNTR polymorphisms of the DRD4 gene were evaluated by PCR using exon 3-specific primers followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Findings. The Hardy-Weinberg principle and Chi-square test showed a significant difference in 4-repetition (4R) alleles between the ADHD (76.2%) and control (53.8%) groups (; ; ). The least percentage of repetition alleles in both groups was 2R. Conclusion. There is a significant correlation between the 4R alleles of DRD4 and ADHD in the northwest of Iran. Seyed Mahmoud Tabatabaei, Shahrokh Amiri, Sara Faghfouri, Seyed Gholamreza Noorazar, Shahin AbdollahiFakhim, and Ali Fakhari Copyright © 2017 Seyed Mahmoud Tabatabaei et al. All rights reserved. Frequency of Neurological Disorders in Bullous Pemphigoid Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study Wed, 24 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2017/6053267/ Background. Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune subepidermal blistering skin disorder which occurs mostly in the elderly. Several studies have reported an association between BP and neurological disorders (ND). Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between BP and neurological disorders in Iranian patients. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, 87 patients with BP were enrolled. They were compared to 184 controls. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS statistical software version 19. Results. Out of 87 patients with BP, 17 (19.5%) had at least one neurological disease. Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) was the most common neurological disease that was seen in 7 patients (8.0%) in the case group and 4 (2.1%) in the control group. The incidence of CVA was significantly different between BP patients and the control group (). Dementia was observed in 6 patients in the case group (16.8%) and 2 (1.0%) in the control group. The incidence of dementia was significantly different between BP patients and the control group (). In this study, the incidences of Parkinson’s disease (), epilepsy (), and multiple sclerosis () were not statistically significant between the two groups. Conclusion. The incidence of CVA and dementia in patients with BP compared to the control group was significantly higher. Sheida Khosravani, Farhad Handjani, Reyhaneh Alimohammadi, and Nasrin Saki Copyright © 2017 Sheida Khosravani et al. All rights reserved. Formulation and Development of a Validated UV-Spectrophotometric Analytical Method of Rutin Tablet Tue, 16 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2017/2624947/ Rutin is available in some foods, fruits, and vegetables. It has various beneficial medical effects making it useful in the treatment of various diseases. Rutin is available in different oral dosage forms such as tablets or capsules, widely available in the market. Rutin and many herbal medicines lack quality control due to unavailability of analytical methods. In this study, we formulated rutin tablet and studied its stability using a simple developed analytical method. The dissolution profile of our formulated tablet was also inspected. The results showed that our developed method was linear (), precise (% RSD = 0.026), and accurate (% recovery = 98.55–103.34). The formulated rutin tablet was stable under accelerated conditions as well as room temperature for 150 days (% assay > 91.69). The dissolution profile over 45 minutes of our formulated tablet showed a better dissolution (26.5%) compared with the internationally marketed Rutin® tablet (18.5%). This study can serve as a guideline to companies that manufacture herbal products to improve their formulated herbs and apply validated analytical methods to check the quality of their product. Murad N. Abualhasan, Jumana Mansour, Nidal Jaradat, Abdel Naser Zaid, and Ibrahim Khadra Copyright © 2017 Murad N. Abualhasan et al. All rights reserved. Effectiveness of Positive Thinking Training Program on Nurses’ Quality of Work Life through Smartphone Applications Sun, 14 May 2017 06:59:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2017/4965816/ Aim. Job stress is a part of nurses’ professional life that causes the decrease of the nurses’ job satisfaction and quality of work life. This study aimed to determine the effect of positive thinking via social media applications on the nurses’ quality of work life. Methods. This was a pretest-posttest quasi-experimental study design with a control group. The samples were selected among the nurses in two hospitals in Fasa University of Medical Sciences and divided randomly into two interventional () and control () groups. Positive thinking training through telegrams was sent to the intervention group during a period of 3 months. Data were collected by using Brooks and Anderson’s questionnaire of work life quality and analyzed by SPSS 18. Results. The mean total scores of pretest and posttest in the intervention group improved noticeably and there were significant differences between mean scores of quality of work life in pretest and posttest scores in interventional groups () and in dimensions of work life quality, home life (), work design (), work context (), and work world (). Conclusion. This study concluded that positive thinking training via social media application enhanced nurses’ quality of work life. This study is necessary to carry out on a larger sample size for generalizing findings better. Mohadeseh Motamed-Jahromi, Zhila Fereidouni, and Azizallah Dehghan Copyright © 2017 Mohadeseh Motamed-Jahromi et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Comparative Study on the Efficacy of Anorganic Bovine Bone (Bio-Oss) and Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite (Ostim) in Maxillary Sinus Floor Augmentation” Thu, 11 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2017/7258513/ Adileh Shirmohammadi, Leila Roshangar, Mohammad Taghi Chitsazi, Reza Pourabbas, Masoumeh Faramarzi, and Nasrin Rahmanpour Copyright © 2017 Adileh Shirmohammadi et al. All rights reserved. A Consistent Definition of Phase Resetting Using Hilbert Transform Wed, 03 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2017/5865101/ A phase resetting curve (PRC) measures the transient change in the phase of a neural oscillator subject to an external perturbation. The PRC encapsulates the dynamical response of a neural oscillator and, as a result, it is often used for predicting phase-locked modes in neural networks. While phase is a fundamental concept, it has multiple definitions that may lead to contradictory results. We used the Hilbert Transform (HT) to define the phase of the membrane potential oscillations and HT amplitude to estimate the PRC of a single neural oscillator. We found that HT’s amplitude and its corresponding instantaneous frequency are very sensitive to membrane potential perturbations. We also found that the phase shift of HT amplitude between the pre- and poststimulus cycles gives an accurate estimate of the PRC. Moreover, HT phase does not suffer from the shortcomings of voltage threshold or isochrone methods and, as a result, gives accurate and reliable estimations of phase resetting. Sorinel A. Oprisan Copyright © 2017 Sorinel A. Oprisan. All rights reserved. Laboratory Electrical Resistivity Studies on Cement Stabilized Soil Sun, 30 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2017/8970153/ Electrical resistivity measurement of freshly prepared uncured and cured soil-cement materials is done and the correlations between the factors controlling the performance of soil-cement and electrical resistivity are discussed in this paper. Conventional quality control of soil-cement quite often involves wastage of a lot of material, if it does not meet the strength criteria. In this study, it is observed that, in soil-cement, resistivity follows a similar trend as unconfined compressive strength, with increase in cement content and time of curing. Quantitative relations developed for predicting 7-day strength of soil-cement mix, using resistivity of the soil-cement samples at freshly prepared state, after 1-hour curing help to decide whether the soil-cement mix meets the desired strength and performance criteria. This offers the option of the soil-cement mix to be upgraded (possibly with additional cement) in its fresh state itself, if it does not fulfil the performance criteria, rather than wasting the material after hardening. Nimi Ann Vincent, R. Shivashankar, K. N. Lokesh, and Jinu Mary Jacob Copyright © 2017 Nimi Ann Vincent et al. All rights reserved. Performance of Sorghum Varieties under Variable Rainfall in Central Tanzania Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2017/2506946/ Rainfall variability has a significant impact on crop production with manifestations in frequent crop failure in semiarid areas. This study used the parameterized APSIM crop model to investigate how rainfall variability may affect yields of improved sorghum varieties based on long-term historical rainfall and projected climate. Analyses of historical rainfall indicate a mix of nonsignificant and significant trends on the onset, cessation, and length of the growing season. The study confirmed that rainfall variability indeed affects yields of improved sorghum varieties. Further analyses of simulated sorghum yields based on seasonal rainfall distribution indicate the concurrence of lower grain yields with the 10-day dry spells during the cropping season. Simulation results for future sorghum response, however, show that impacts of rainfall variability on sorghum will be overridden by temperature increase. We conclude that, in the event where harms imposed by moisture stress in the study area are not abated, even improved sorghum varieties are likely to perform poorly. Barnabas M. Msongaleli, S. D. Tumbo, N. I. Kihupi, and Filbert B. Rwehumbiza Copyright © 2017 Barnabas M. Msongaleli et al. All rights reserved. Antioxidant and Synergistic Antidiabetic Activities of a Three-Plant Preparation Used in Cameroon Folk Medicine Wed, 26 Apr 2017 07:27:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2017/9501675/ Introduction. Several plant preparations like a mixture of aqueous extracts of Spilanthes africana; Portulaca oleracea; and Sida rhombifolia are currently utilized in Foumban (West Cameroon) to manage diabetes. The aim of this study is to investigate the antidiabetic property of the aqueous mixture of three plant extracts (1 : 1 : 1) on streptozotocin induced diabetes rats. Methods. Diabetes was induced to rats by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of streptozotocin (STZ) at a dose of 50 mg/kg b.w. The diabetic rats received different dosages of the mixture of extracts for 21 days and glibenclamide 6.5 mg/kg b.w. as positive control. Results. The results showed that the mixture of extracts significantly () decreased the level of the glycaemia, the total cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL-cholesterol as well as MDA, AST, ALT, and creatinine levels. It also increased significantly the concentration of HDL-cholesterol, glutathione, and TAOS. A great reduction of the atherogenic indexes CT/HDL and LDL/HDL of the treated groups was observed. Each extract and the mixture demonstrated significant scavenging property on DPPH and OH radicals and present a good antioxidant property. Conclusion. The mixture of plant extracts has hypoglycemic, antioxidant, and hypolipidemic properties and can be used for the management of diabetes mellitus. Bruno Moukette Moukette, Vicky Jocelyne Ama Moor, Cacral Prosper Biapa Nya, Pauline Nanfack, Francine Tankeu Nzufo, Marcel Azabji Kenfack, Jeanne Yonkeu Ngogang, and Constant Anatole Pieme Copyright © 2017 Bruno Moukette Moukette et al. All rights reserved. Extracellular Xylanopectinolytic Enzymes by Bacillus subtilis ADI1 from EFB’s Compost Mon, 24 Apr 2017 10:03:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2017/7831954/ Microbial xylanase and pectinase are two extremely valuable enzymes, which have captivated much attention. This can be seen from the increased demand for these enzymes by many industrial sectors. This study investigates the isolation and screening of extracellular xylanopectinolytic enzymes-producing bacteria in a submerged fermentation (SmF). Samples are collected from the compost of empty fruit bunch (EFB) at Biocompost Pilot Plant, located at Biorefinery Plant, Universiti Putra Malaysia. From the experiment, out of 20 isolates, 11 isolates show xylanase or/and pectinase activity, and only one isolate (EFB-11) shows the concurrent activities of xylanase and pectinase. These activities are selected for enzyme production under submerged fermentation (quantitative screening). At the 72nd hour of incubation, xylanase and pectinase show the highest production, which ranges about 42.33 U/mL and 62.17 U/mL (with low amount of cellulase present), supplemented with 2% (w/v) of rice bran as carbon source at incubation temperature level, which is 30°C. Meanwhile, the pH of media is shifted to 8.42, which indicates that EFB-11 isolate is alkalotolerant bacteria and identified as Bacillus subtilis ADI1. This strain proves to have potential in agroindustrial bioconversion and has a promising ability to scale up to an industrial scale. Muhammad Hariadi Nawawi, Rosfarizan Mohamad, Paridah Md. Tahir, and Wan Zuhainis Saad Copyright © 2017 Muhammad Hariadi Nawawi et al. All rights reserved. Preoperative Fasting among Adult Patients for Elective Surgery in a Kenyan Referral Hospital Wed, 12 Apr 2017 09:05:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2017/2159606/ Background. Preoperative fasting (POF) is physiologically and precautionary important during anesthesia and surgery. POF from midnight has been practiced despite the recommended shorter practice. Objective. Assessing preoperative fasting among adult patients scheduled for elective surgery at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional study involving 65 surgical patients. A questionnaire of mixed questions on demographics, reasons, source of instructions, opinion on instructions, time, premedication practices, outcome, and complains on NPO was used. Analysis was quantitatively done with SPSS v. 22. Ethical approval was obtained from KNH-UoN ERC. Results. Of the respondents 93.8% lacked knowledge on the correct reasons for POF and felt that the instructions were unclear and less important <50%. POF instructions were administered by nurses 80%, anesthetists 15%, and surgeons 5%. Most of respondents (73.8%) fasted > 15 hours. The POF outcomes were rated moderately challenging as follows: prolonged wait for surgery 44.6%, thirst 43.1%, hunger 36.9%, and anxiety 29.2%. Conclusion. Nurses are critical in providing POF instructions and care, and patient knowledge level is a mirror reflection of the quality of interventions. This underscores the need to build capacity for nurses and strengthen the health system to offer individualized preoperative interventions as well as monitoring and clinical auditing of fasting practices. George Njoroge, Lucy Kivuti-Bitok, and Samuel Kimani Copyright © 2017 George Njoroge et al. All rights reserved. Interactions of Nitrogen Source and Rate and Weed Removal Timing Relative to Nitrogen Content in Corn and Weeds and Corn Grain Yield Tue, 11 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2017/8961367/ Adequate fertility combined with effective weed management is important in maximizing corn (Zea mays L.) grain yield. Corn uptake of nitrogen (N) is dependent upon many factors including weed species and density and the rate and formulation of applied N fertilizer. Understanding interactions among corn, applied N, and weeds is important in developing management strategies. Field studies were conducted in North Carolina to compare corn and weed responses to urea ammonium nitrate (UAN), sulfur-coated urea (SCU), and composted poultry litter (CPL) when a mixture of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.) and large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis L.) was removed with herbicides at heights of 8 or 16 cm. These respective removal timings corresponded with 22 and 28 days after corn planting or V2 and V3 stages of growth, respectively. Differences in N content in above-ground biomass of corn were noted early in the season due to weed interference but did not translate into differences in corn grain yield. Interactions of N source and N rate were noted for corn grain yield but these factors did not interact with timing of weed control. These results underscore that timely implementation of control tactics regardless of N fertility management is important to protect corn grain yield. Alexandra M. Knight, Wesley J. Everman, David L. Jordan, Ronnie W. Heiniger, and T. Jot Smyth Copyright © 2017 Alexandra M. Knight et al. All rights reserved. Predictive Regression Equations of Flowmetric and Spirometric Peak Expiratory Flow in Healthy Moroccan Adults Thu, 30 Mar 2017 08:07:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2017/8985067/ Introduction. PEF has never been characterized among healthy Moroccan adults. The objective of this study is to describe the values of PEF among healthy Moroccan adults, to study its relationship with anthropometric parameters (gender, age, height, and weight), to compare spirometric and flowmetric PEF, to establish the prediction equations for PEF, and to study the correlation between PEF and FEV1. Methods. Cross-sectional study conducted between May and June 2016. It involved healthy nonsmoking volunteers living in Tetouan, Morocco, gathered through a mobile stand realization of spirometry and peak flow measurements. Results. Our final sample concerned 313 adults (143 men and 170 women). For both men and women, age and height were the main determinants of PEF, and a positive correlation was found between PEF and FEV1. Conclusion. Our study has established the PEF predictive equations in the Moroccan adult population. Our results allow us to conclude that the PEF can be a reliable alternative of FEV1 in centers not equipped with spirometry. Khalid Bouti, Iliass Maouni, Jouda Benamor, and Jamal Eddine Bourkadi Copyright © 2017 Khalid Bouti et al. All rights reserved. Enhancing Tumor Detection in IR-UWB Breast Cancer System Sun, 19 Mar 2017 07:00:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2017/4606580/ An ultra-wideband (UWB) microwave system for breast cancer detection is presented. The proposed system includes monocycle pulse generator, antipodal Vivaldi antenna, breast model, and calibration algorithm for tumor detection. Firstly, our pulse generator employs transmission gate in glitch generator to achieve several advantages such as low power consumption and low ringing level. Secondly, the antipodal Vivaldi antenna is designed assuming FR4 dielectric substrate material, and developed antenna element ( mm2) features a − dB return loss and bandwidth ranges from 2.3 GHz to more than 11 GHz. Thirdly, the phantom breast can be modeled as a layer of skin, fat, and then tumor is inserted in this layer. Finally, subtract and add algorithm (SAD) is used as a calibration algorithm in tumor detection system. The proposed system suggested that horizontal antenna position with 90° between transmitting and receiving antennas is localized as a suitable antenna position with different rotating location and a 0.5 cm near to phantom. The mean advantages of this localization and tracking position around breast is a high received power signal approximately around mv as a higher recognized signal in tumor detection. Using our proposed system we can detect tumor in 5 mm diameter. Sara Fouad, Reda Ghoname, Abd Elmonem Elmahdy, and Abd Elhalim Zekry Copyright © 2017 Sara Fouad et al. All rights reserved. Comprehensive Histological and Immunochemical Forensic Studies in Deaths Occurring in Custody Sun, 12 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2017/9793528/ In-custody deaths have several causes, and these include homicide, suicide, natural death from chronic diseases, and unexplained death possibly related to acute stress, asphyxia, excited delirium, and drug intoxication. In some instances, these deaths are attributed to undefined accidents and natural causes even though there is no obvious natural cause apparent after investigation. Understanding these deaths requires a comprehensive investigation, including documentation of circumstances surrounding the death, review of past medical history, drug and toxicology screens, and a forensic autopsy. These autopsies may not always clearly explain the death and reveal only nonspecific terminal events, such as pulmonary edema or cerebral edema. There are useful histologic and biochemical signatures which identify asphyxia, stress cardiomyopathy, and excited delirium. Identifying these causes of death requires semiquantitative morphologic and biochemical studies. We have reviewed recent Bureau of Justice Statistics on in-custody death, case series, and morphological and biochemical studies relevant to asphyxia, stress cardiomyopathy, and excited delirium and have summarized this information. We suggest that regional centers should manage the investigation of these deaths to provide more comprehensive studies and to enhance the expertise of forensic pathologists who would routinely manage potentially complex and difficult cases. Kenneth Nugent, Menfil A. Orellana-Barrios, and Dolores Buscemi Copyright © 2017 Kenneth Nugent et al. All rights reserved. Computational Acoustic Beamforming for Noise Source Identification for Small Wind Turbines Thu, 09 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2017/7061391/ This paper develops a computational acoustic beamforming (CAB) methodology for identification of sources of small wind turbine noise. This methodology is validated using the case of the NACA 0012 airfoil trailing edge noise. For this validation case, the predicted acoustic maps were in excellent conformance with the results of the measurements obtained from the acoustic beamforming experiment. Following this validation study, the CAB methodology was applied to the identification of noise sources generated by a commercial small wind turbine. The simulated acoustic maps revealed that the blade tower interaction and the wind turbine nacelle were the two primary mechanisms for sound generation for this small wind turbine at frequencies between 100 and 630 Hz. Ping Ma, Fue-Sang Lien, and Eugene Yee Copyright © 2017 Ping Ma et al. All rights reserved. Orthodontic Management in Aggressive Periodontitis Thu, 16 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2017/8098154/ Aggressive periodontitis is a type of periodontitis with early onset and rapid progression and mostly affecting young adults who occupy a large percentage of orthodontic patients. The role of the orthodontist is important in screening the disease, making a provisional diagnosis, and referring it to a periodontist for immediate treatment. The orthodontist should be aware of the disease not only before starting the appliance therapy, but also during and after the active mechanotherapy. The orthodontic treatment plan, biomechanics, and appliance system may need to be modified to deal with the teeth having reduced periodontal support. With proper force application and oral hygiene maintenance, orthodontic tooth movement is possible without any deleterious effect in the tooth with reduced bone support. With proper motivation and interdisciplinary approach, orthodontic treatment is possible in patients with controlled aggressive periodontitis. Rajesh Gyawali and Bhagabat Bhattarai Copyright © 2017 Rajesh Gyawali and Bhagabat Bhattarai. All rights reserved. Consistency Test between Scoring Systems for Predicting Outcomes of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in a Saudi Population Treated with Imatinib Mon, 13 Feb 2017 07:52:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2017/1076493/ Inconsistency in prognostic scores occurs where two different risk categories are applied to the same chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patient. This study evaluated common scoring systems for identifying risk groups based on patients’ molecular responses to select the best prognostic score when conflict prognoses are obtained from patient profiles. We analyzed 104 patients diagnosed with CML and treated at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Saudi Arabia, who were monitored for major molecular response (achieving a BCR-ABL1 transcript level equal to or less than 0.1%) by Real-Time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RQ-PCR), and their risk profiles were identified using Sokal, Hasford, EUTOS, and ELTS scores based on the patients’ clinical and hematological parameters at diagnosis. Our results found that the Hasford score outperformed other scores in identifying risk categories for conflict groups, with an accuracy of 63%. Haneen R. Banjar and Enaam Alsobhi Copyright © 2017 Haneen R. Banjar and Enaam Alsobhi. All rights reserved. Translation and Validation of Modified Dental Anxiety Scale: The Nepali Version Sun, 29 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2017/5495643/ Introduction. For proper management of anxious dental patients it is imperative to assess their levels of dental anxiety before treatment. Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) is the most commonly used questionnaire to assess dental anxiety. But a Nepali version of MDAS is still lacking. Hence, the objective of this study was to develop a reliable and valid Nepali version of MDAS. Materials and Methods. The English version of the MDAS was translated into Nepali following a forward and backward translation process. Following pretesting and cognitive interviewing a final version of Nepali questionnaire was obtained. One hundred and fifty patients attending Department of Orthodontics completed the Nepali version of MDAS questionnaire at their convenience. Also, patients were asked to rate their overall anxiety on a 100 mm visual analog scale (VAS). A test-retest of the questionnaire was performed with 30 patients after 2 weeks. Results. Cronbach’s alpha value of the Nepali version of MDAS was 0.775. The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient between test and retest was 0.872. Spearman’s correlation coefficient between the total MDAS score and VAS score was 0.838. Conclusion. The translated Nepali version of MDAS is a reliable and valid instrument to measure the dental anxiety of Nepali patients. Jamal Giri, Prabhat Ranjan Pokharel, Rajesh Gyawali, and Bhushan Bhattarai Copyright © 2017 Jamal Giri et al. All rights reserved. Erratum to “Development of a Rapid and Precise Method of Digital Image Analysis to Quantify Canopy Density and Structural Complexity” Wed, 18 Jan 2017 08:34:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2017/3493691/ Anne E. Goodenough and Andrew S. Goodenough Copyright © 2017 Anne E. Goodenough and Andrew S. Goodenough. All rights reserved. A Tool to Simulate the Transmission, Reception, and Execution of Interactive TV Applications Wed, 18 Jan 2017 07:57:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2017/1834907/ The emergence of Interactive Digital Television (iDTV) opened a set of technological possibilities that go beyond those offered by conventional TV. Among these opportunities we can highlight interactive contents that run together with linear TV program (television service where the viewer has to watch a scheduled TV program at the particular time it is offered and on the particular channel it is presented on). However, developing interactive contents for this new platform is not as straightforward as, for example, developing Internet applications. One of the options to make this development process easier and safer is to use an iDTV simulator. However, after having investigated some of the existing iDTV simulation environments, we have found a limitation: these simulators mainly present solutions focused on the TV receiver, whose interactive content must be loaded in advance by the programmer to a local repository (e.g., Hard Drive, USB). Therefore, in this paper, we propose a tool, named BiS (Broadcast iDTV content Simulator), which makes possible a broader solution for the simulation of interactive contents. It allows simulating the transmission of interactive content along with the linear TV program (simulating the transmission of content over the air and in broadcast to the receivers). To enable this, we defined a generic and easy-to-customize communication protocol that was implemented in the tool. The proposed environment differs from others because it allows simulating reception of both linear content and interactive content while running Java applications to allow such a content presentation. Manoel Carvalho Marques Neto, Raoni Kulesza, Thiago Rodrigues, Felipe A. L. Machado, and Celso A. S. Santos Copyright © 2017 Manoel Carvalho Marques Neto et al. All rights reserved. Efficient Data Transfer Rate and Speed of Secured Ethernet Interface System Tue, 27 Dec 2016 09:17:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2016/9458627/ Embedded systems are extensively used in home automation systems, small office systems, vehicle communication systems, and health service systems. The services provided by these systems are available on the Internet and these services need to be protected. Security features like IP filtering, UDP protection, or TCP protection need to be implemented depending on the specific application used by the device. Every device on the Internet must have network interface. This paper proposes the design of the embedded Secured Ethernet Interface System to protect the service available on the Internet against the SYN flood attack. In this experimental study, Secured Ethernet Interface System is customized to protect the web service against the SYN flood attack. Secured Ethernet Interface System is implemented on ALTERA Stratix IV FPGA as a system on chip and uses the modified SYN flood attack protection method. The experimental results using Secured Ethernet Interface System indicate increase in number of genuine clients getting service from the server, considerable improvement in the data transfer rate, and better response time during the SYN flood attack. Shaila Ghanti and G. M. Naik Copyright © 2016 Shaila Ghanti and G. M. Naik. All rights reserved. Returning for HIV Test Results: A Systematic Review of Barriers and Facilitators Thu, 15 Dec 2016 12:55:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2016/6304820/ This systematic review aims to identify factors that facilitate or hinder the return for HIV test results. Four electronic databases were searched. Two independent reviewers selected eligible publications based on inclusion/exclusion criteria. Quantitative studies published since 1985 were included. Thirty-six studies were included in the final review. Individual level barriers included sociodemographic characteristics, such as being a male, of young age and low education level, risk behaviours such as injecting drugs, having multiple sexual partners, and psychosocial factors. Older age, higher education level, being a woman, having high self-esteem, having coping skills, and holding insurance coverage were identified as facilitators. Interpersonal barriers and facilitators were linked to risk behaviours of sexual partners. Contextual barriers included essentially the HIV testing center and its characteristics. This review identified the most important factors that need to be addressed to ensure that people return for their HIV test results. Patrice Ngangue, Emmanuelle Bedard, Hervé Tchala Vignon Zomahoun, Julie Payne-Gagnon, Claudia Fournier, Jeannette Afounde, and Marie-Pierre Gagnon Copyright © 2016 Patrice Ngangue et al. All rights reserved. A New Class of Almost Ricci Solitons and Their Physical Interpretation Sun, 04 Dec 2016 12:33:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2016/4903520/ We establish a link between a connection symmetry, called conformal collineation, and almost Ricci soliton (in particular Ricci soliton) in reducible Ricci symmetric semi-Riemannian manifolds. As a physical application, by investigating the kinematic and dynamic properties of almost Ricci soliton manifolds, we present a physical model of imperfect fluid spacetimes. This model gives a general relation between the physical quantities of the matter tensor of the field equations and does not provide any exact solution. Therefore, we propose further study on finding exact solutions of our viscous fluid physical model for which it is required that the fluid velocity vector be tilted. We also suggest two open problems. K. L. Duggal Copyright © 2016 K. L. Duggal. All rights reserved. The Association of Hepatitis C Serological Status with Several Risk Factors in Indonesia Wed, 16 Nov 2016 08:46:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2016/3018135/ Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver commonly caused by viral infection such as hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E but it is also possible by other causes. Infection with hepatitis C virus is also referred to as a disguise because the early infection is often asymptomatic that often goes undetected. This study aims at determining the several associated risk factors with hepatitis C serological status. The study design is cross-sectional. The biomedical data collection was carried out in 33 provinces in Indonesia with a population in urban blocks, census in Indonesia, where the sample is all household members over the age of one year from selected households by signing the informed consent. Total block census in selected urban area is about 971-block census with a total sample of 15.536 households. The results showed that there is a correlation between hepatitis C serological status and demographic group and that the age and occupation groups showed significant value obtained at 0.001 (OR = 3.27, CI = 1.84–5.81) and 0.209 (OR = 0.23, CI = 0.59–0.94). In conclusion, there are risk factors such as age and occupation that have a correlation of being infected with hepatitis C serological status. Noer Endah Pracoyo, Made Ayu Lely Suratri, Roselinda Roselinda, and Vivi Setiawaty Copyright © 2016 Noer Endah Pracoyo et al. All rights reserved. The Impact of Duodenal Diverticuli and the Execution of Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreaticography Wed, 02 Nov 2016 09:50:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2016/5026289/ Introduction. Duodenal diverticuli alter the anatomy of the papillary region and can make an ERCP difficult. Aim. To study the outcome of ERCP in cases of duodenal diverticuli. Patients and Methods. Consecutive ERCPs in a period of 24 years were included. Endoscopy reports were studied for presence of diverticuli. Success of the procedure and findings were noted. Clinical records were searched for clinical presentation of the patient. Patients without duodenal diverticuli were used as comparison. Results. 2795 procedures were done in 2092 patients. Of these, 211 (10%) had diverticuli. Diverticuli occurred significantly more often in women (). ERCP was significantly more often inconclusive in cases of a diverticulum, 12.8% versus 6.3%, . In cases of a successful ERCP, patients with diverticuli showed more often no abnormalities in the bile duct, 26% versus 17%, . In 64% of cases, the reason for ERCP was cholestasis. There was no significant difference in presence of stones or cholangitis. Biliary pancreatitis was seen more often in patients without diverticuli, 4.4% versus 1.4%, . This was also the case for malignancies, 18.5% versus 6.6%, . Conclusion. It is concluded that duodenal diverticuli can be responsible for cholestasis. Presence of a diverticulum in the duodenum makes the ERCP procedure more complex. R. J. L. F. Loffeld and P. E. P. Dekkers Copyright © 2016 R. J. L. F. Loffeld and P. E. P. Dekkers. All rights reserved. The Impact of Variable Wind Shear Coefficients on Risk Reduction of Wind Energy Projects Sun, 30 Oct 2016 13:54:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2016/5790464/ Estimation of wind speed at proposed hub heights is typically achieved using a wind shear exponent or wind shear coefficient (WSC), variation in wind speed as a function of height. The WSC is subject to temporal variation at low and high frequencies, ranging from diurnal and seasonal variations to disturbance caused by weather patterns; however, in many cases, it is assumed that the WSC remains constant. This assumption creates significant error in resource assessment, increasing uncertainty in projects and potentially significantly impacting the ability to control gird connected wind generators. This paper contributes to the body of knowledge relating to the evaluation and assessment of wind speed, with particular emphasis on the development of techniques to improve the accuracy of estimated wind speed above measurement height. It presents an evaluation of the use of a variable wind shear coefficient methodology based on a distribution of wind shear coefficients which have been implemented in real time. The results indicate that a VWSC provides a more accurate estimate of wind at hub height, ranging from 41% to 4% reduction in root mean squared error (RMSE) between predicted and actual wind speeds when using a variable wind shear coefficient at heights ranging from 33% to 100% above the highest actual wind measurement. Kenneth W. Corscadden, Allan Thomson, Behrang Yoonesi, and Josiah McNutt Copyright © 2016 Kenneth W. Corscadden et al. All rights reserved. Studies on Shokyo, Kanzo, and Keihi in Kakkonto Medicine on Prostaglandin E2 Production in Lipopolysaccharide-Treated Human Gingival Fibroblasts Thu, 13 Oct 2016 14:25:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2016/9351787/ We previously demonstrated that a kampo medicine, kakkonto, decreases lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production by human gingival fibroblasts. In this study, we examined the herbs constituting kakkonto that exhibit this effect. Shokyo strongly and concentration dependently and kanzo and keihi moderately decreased LPS-induced PGE2 production. Shokyo did not alter cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity, cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), annexin 1 and COX-2 expression, and LPS-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. Kanzo inhibited COX-2 activity but increased annexin 1 and COX-2 expression and did not alter LPS-induced ERK phosphorylation. Keihi inhibited COX-2 activity and LPS-induced ERK phosphorylation but slightly increased COX-2 expression and did not alter cPLA2 and annexin 1 expression. These results suggest that the mechanism of shokyo is through the inhibition of cPLA2 activity, and that of kanzo and keihi is through the inhibition of COX-2 activity and indirect inhibition of cPLA2 activity. Therefore, it is possible that shokyo and kakkonto are clinically useful for the improvement of inflammatory responses. Toshiaki Ara and Norio Sogawa Copyright © 2016 Toshiaki Ara and Norio Sogawa. All rights reserved. Retracted: The Impact of Graft Nephrectomy on Subsequent Transplants: Multivariate Analysis of Risk Factors for Second Graft Loss and for Multiple Transplantations–A Single-Center Retrospective Study Wed, 12 Oct 2016 07:22:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2016/9782049/ International Scholarly Research Notices Copyright © 2016 International Scholarly Research Notices. All rights reserved. Primary Hyperparathyroidism and Pancreatitis: A Rare Association with Multiple Facets Tue, 27 Sep 2016 13:30:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2016/7294274/ Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is rarely associated with the occurrence of acute or chronic pancreatitis. Hypercalcemia plays a major role in the pathogenesis. We report five cases of pancreatitis revealing PHPT. Patients and Methods. This is a retrospective study of 4 years, including all patients admitted to intensive care unit or gastroenterology department, for an acute or chronic pancreatitis revealing primary hyperparathyroidism. Results. We included 5 patients, all female, with mean age 54 years [40–76 years]. The PHPT was in all cases revealed by acute pancreatitis (AP). This one was oedematous in four cases and severe in one case. It occurred twice in calcified chronic pancreatitis (CCP). There was hypercalcemia in all cases. The PHPT was associated with a high rate of parathyroid hormone in 4 cases. The secreting lesion was an adenoma in 5 cases. Two patients had in addition bilateral renal calcifications. The outcome was favorable in 4 patients among whom 3 have had parathyroid surgery. A death was noted by superinfection of necrosis in the case of severe AP. Conclusion. The occurrence of pancreatitis during hyperparathyroidism is rare. Normal or elevated calcemia during acute or chronic pancreatitis should always get attention. I. Diallo, C. A. Fall, B. Ndiaye, M. Mbaye, I. Diedhiou, A. R. Ndiaye, P. S. Diawara, F. Fall, P. S. Mbaye, and S. B. Gning Copyright © 2016 I. Diallo et al. All rights reserved.