International Scholarly Research Notices The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Studies on Shokyo, Kanzo, and Keihi in Kakkonto Medicine on Prostaglandin E2 Production in Lipopolysaccharide-Treated Human Gingival Fibroblasts Thu, 13 Oct 2016 14:25:52 +0000 We previously demonstrated that a kampo medicine, kakkonto, decreases lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production by human gingival fibroblasts. In this study, we examined the herbs constituting kakkonto that exhibit this effect. Shokyo strongly and concentration dependently and kanzo and keihi moderately decreased LPS-induced PGE2 production. Shokyo did not alter cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity, cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), annexin 1 and COX-2 expression, and LPS-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. Kanzo inhibited COX-2 activity but increased annexin 1 and COX-2 expression and did not alter LPS-induced ERK phosphorylation. Keihi inhibited COX-2 activity and LPS-induced ERK phosphorylation but slightly increased COX-2 expression and did not alter cPLA2 and annexin 1 expression. These results suggest that the mechanism of shokyo is through the inhibition of cPLA2 activity, and that of kanzo and keihi is through the inhibition of COX-2 activity and indirect inhibition of cPLA2 activity. Therefore, it is possible that shokyo and kakkonto are clinically useful for the improvement of inflammatory responses. Toshiaki Ara and Norio Sogawa Copyright © 2016 Toshiaki Ara and Norio Sogawa. All rights reserved. Retracted: The Impact of Graft Nephrectomy on Subsequent Transplants: Multivariate Analysis of Risk Factors for Second Graft Loss and for Multiple Transplantations–A Single-Center Retrospective Study Wed, 12 Oct 2016 07:22:01 +0000 International Scholarly Research Notices Copyright © 2016 International Scholarly Research Notices. All rights reserved. Primary Hyperparathyroidism and Pancreatitis: A Rare Association with Multiple Facets Tue, 27 Sep 2016 13:30:55 +0000 Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is rarely associated with the occurrence of acute or chronic pancreatitis. Hypercalcemia plays a major role in the pathogenesis. We report five cases of pancreatitis revealing PHPT. Patients and Methods. This is a retrospective study of 4 years, including all patients admitted to intensive care unit or gastroenterology department, for an acute or chronic pancreatitis revealing primary hyperparathyroidism. Results. We included 5 patients, all female, with mean age 54 years [40–76 years]. The PHPT was in all cases revealed by acute pancreatitis (AP). This one was oedematous in four cases and severe in one case. It occurred twice in calcified chronic pancreatitis (CCP). There was hypercalcemia in all cases. The PHPT was associated with a high rate of parathyroid hormone in 4 cases. The secreting lesion was an adenoma in 5 cases. Two patients had in addition bilateral renal calcifications. The outcome was favorable in 4 patients among whom 3 have had parathyroid surgery. A death was noted by superinfection of necrosis in the case of severe AP. Conclusion. The occurrence of pancreatitis during hyperparathyroidism is rare. Normal or elevated calcemia during acute or chronic pancreatitis should always get attention. I. Diallo, C. A. Fall, B. Ndiaye, M. Mbaye, I. Diedhiou, A. R. Ndiaye, P. S. Diawara, F. Fall, P. S. Mbaye, and S. B. Gning Copyright © 2016 I. Diallo et al. All rights reserved. Estimation of Cyclic Shift with Delayed Correlation and Matched Filtering in Time Domain Cyclic-SLM for PAPR Reduction Mon, 26 Sep 2016 10:59:25 +0000 Time domain cyclic-selective mapping (TDC-SLM) reduces the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) in OFDM systems while the amounts of cyclic shifts are required to recover the transmitted signal in a receiver. One of the critical issues of the SLM scheme is sending the side information (SI) which reduces the throughputs in wireless OFDM systems. The proposed scheme implements delayed correlation and matched filtering (DC-MF) to estimate the amounts of the cyclic shifts in the receiver. In the proposed scheme, the DC-MF is placed after the frequency domain equalization (FDE) to improve the accuracy of cyclic shift estimation. The accuracy rate of the propose scheme reaches 100% at = 5 dB and the bit error rate (BER) improves by 0.2 dB as compared with the conventional TDC-SLM. The BER performance of the proposed scheme is also better than that of the conventional TDC-SLM even though a nonlinear high power amplifier is assumed. Panca Dewi Pamungkasari and Yukitoshi Sanada Copyright © 2016 Panca Dewi Pamungkasari and Yukitoshi Sanada. All rights reserved. Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness Practice and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women, Northwest Ethiopia Sun, 18 Sep 2016 13:04:37 +0000 Background. Little is known about birth preparedness and complication readiness (BPCR) plan in resource limited settings to decrease maternal mortality. Therefore, this study was done to assess the status of BPCR and associated factors among pregnant women in South Wollo, Northwest Ethiopia, by involving 819 pregnant women from March to April, 2014. Data were collected by using pretested interviewer administered questionnaire and analyzed using a computer program of SPSS version 20.00. Results. Pregnant women who were prepared for at least three elements of BPCR were 24.1%. Pregnant women knowing at least three key danger signs during pregnancy, delivery, and postnatal period were 23.2%, 22.6%, and 9.6%, respectively. Women having secondary education and higher were 6.20 (95% CI = [1.36, 28.120]) times more likely to be prepared than illiterates. Women having a lifetime history of stillbirth [5.80 (1.13, 29.63)], attending ANC for last child pregnancy [5.44 (2.07, 14.27)], participating in community BPCR group discussion [4.36 (1.17, 16.26)], and having their male partner involved in BPCR counseling during ANC follow-up [4.45 (1.95, 10.16)] were more likely to be prepared. Conclusions. BPCR was very low and should be strengthened through health communication by involving partner in BPCR counseling. Yewondwossen Bitew, Worku Awoke, and Simachew Chekol Copyright © 2016 Yewondwossen Bitew et al. All rights reserved. Generalized Robertson-Walker Space-Time Admitting Evolving Null Horizons Related to a Black Hole Event Horizon Sun, 18 Sep 2016 11:24:07 +0000 A new technique is used to study a family of time-dependent null horizons, called “Evolving Null Horizons” (ENHs), of generalized Robertson-Walker (GRW) space-time such that the metric satisfies a kinematic condition. This work is different from our early papers on the same issue where we used -splitting space-time but only some special subcases of GRW space-time have this formalism. Also, in contrast to previous work, we have proved that each member of ENHs is totally umbilical in . Finally, we show that there exists an ENH which is always a null horizon evolving into a black hole event horizon and suggest some open problems. K. L. Duggal Copyright © 2016 K. L. Duggal. All rights reserved. Retracted: Growth Responses and Leaf Antioxidant Metabolism of Grass Pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) Genotypes under Salinity Stress Thu, 01 Sep 2016 08:45:48 +0000 International Scholarly Research Notices Copyright © 2016 International Scholarly Research Notices. All rights reserved. Automatic Analysis of Retinal Vascular Parameters for Detection of Diabetes in Indian Patients with No Retinopathy Sign Mon, 08 Aug 2016 06:21:26 +0000 This study has investigated the association between retinal vascular parameters with type II diabetes in Indian population with no observable diabetic retinopathy. It has introduced two new retinal vascular parameters: total number of branching angles (TBA) and average acute branching angles (ABA) as potential biomarkers of diabetes in an explanatory model. A total number of 180 retinal images (two (left and right) × two (ODC and MC) × 45 subjects (13 diabetics and 32 nondiabetics)) were analysed. Stepwise linear regression analysis was performed to model the association between type II diabetes with the best subset of explanatory variables (predictors), consisting of retinal vascular parameters and patients’ demographic information. value of the estimated coefficients () indicated that, at α level of 0.05, the newly introduced retinal vascular parameters, that is, TBA and ABA together with CRAE, mean tortuosity, SD of branching angle, and VB, are related to type II diabetes when there is no observable sign of retinopathy. Behzad Aliahmad, Dinesh Kant Kumar, and Rajeev Jain Copyright © 2016 Behzad Aliahmad et al. All rights reserved. Estimating Soil Moisture Distributions across Small Farm Fields with ALOS/PALSAR Tue, 26 Jul 2016 11:29:09 +0000 The ALOS (advanced land observing satellite) has an active microwave sensor, PALSAR (phased array L-band synthetic aperture radar), which has a fine resolution of 6.5 m. Because of the fine resolution, PALSAR provides the possibility of estimating soil moisture distributions in small farmlands. Making such small-scale estimates has not been available with traditional satellite remote sensing techniques. In this study, the relationship between microwave backscattering coefficient () measured with PALSAR and ground-based soil moisture was determined to investigate the performance of PALSAR for estimating soil moisture distribution in a small-scale farmland. On the ground at a cabbage field in Japan in 2008, the soil moisture distribution of multiple soil layers was measured using time domain reflectometry when the ALOS flew over the field. Soil moisture in the 0–20 cm soil layer showed the largest correlation coefficient with (). The values also showed a strong correlation with the ground surface coverage ratio by cabbage plants. Our results suggested that PALSAR could estimate soil moisture distribution of the 0–20 cm soil layer across a bare field and a crop coverage ratio when crops were planted. Yuki Kojima, Kazuo Oki, Kosuke Noborio, and Masaru Mizoguchi Copyright © 2016 Yuki Kojima et al. All rights reserved. Risky Sexual Behaviors and Associated Factors among Jiga High School and Preparatory School Students, Amhara Region, Ethiopia Wed, 15 Jun 2016 11:59:32 +0000 Background. Young people constitute a large number of population worldwide, and majority of this population group lives in developing countries. They are at high risk of engaging in risky sexual behaviors. These risk sexual behaviors predispose youths to several sexual and reproductive health problems like STIs, HIV, unwanted pregnancy, and abortion. So, this study was conducted to assess the magnitude of risky sexual behaviors and associated factors among Jiga high school and preparatory school students, northwest Ethiopia. Methodology. Institutional based cross-sectional study design was conducted among Jiga town high school and preparatory school students. A total of 311 students were included in the study. Systematic random sampling method was used to select study participants. Data was entered using EpiData version 3.1 and it was exported to SPSS version 22 for further analysis. Descriptive analysis and bivariate and multivariate analysis were also calculated to determine factors associated with risky sexual behavior. Result. Forty-eight (16%) of respondents reported that they had sexual intercourse. From those who start sex, 44 (14.7%) were involved in risky sexual behavior which could predispose them to sexual and reproductive health problems. More than half, 27 (56.3%), of respondents first sexual intercourse was before their eighteenth birthday. The mean age and SD of fist sexual initiation were 17.2 years old and 1.35 years, respectively. Factors associated with risky sexual behavior include respondents between the ages of 20 and 23 (AOR: 5, 95%, CI: 1.59–15.98), drinking alcohol (AOR: 2.48, 95% CI: 1.13–5.41), and having poor knowledge towards HIV/AIDS (AOR: 4.53, 95%, CI: 2.06–9.94). Conclusion. A large number of in-school youths are involved in risky sexual behaviors like early sexual initiation, having multiple sexual partners, inconsistence use of condom, and having sex with high risk partner (CSWs). Age of respondents, alcohol drinking, and poor knowledge towards HIV/AIDS were factors associated with risky sexual behavior. School and community based programs in reducing substance abuse among youths and increasing their knowledge towards HIV/AIDS are important. Getachew Mullu Kassa, Genet Degu, Meseret Yitayew, Worku Misganaw, Mikiyas Muche, Tiguaded Demelash, Meless Mesele, and Melat Ayehu Copyright © 2016 Getachew Mullu Kassa et al. All rights reserved. Ants Can Expect the Time of an Event on Basis of Previous Experiences Tue, 14 Jun 2016 10:07:27 +0000 Working on three ant species of the genus Myrmica, M. ruginodis, M. rubra, and M. sabuleti, we showed that foragers can expect the subsequent time at which food will be available on the basis of the previous times at which food was present. The ants acquired this expectative ability right after having experienced two time shifts of food delivery. Moreover, the ants’ learning score appeared to be a logarithmic function of time (i.e., of the number of training days). This ability to expect subsequent times at which an event will occur may be an advantageous ethological trait. Marie-Claire Cammaerts and Roger Cammaerts Copyright © 2016 Marie-Claire Cammaerts and Roger Cammaerts. All rights reserved. Minimally Invasive Treatment of Infrabony Periodontal Defects Using Dual-Wavelength Laser Therapy Thu, 02 Jun 2016 08:04:41 +0000 Introduction. Surgical management of infrabony defects is an invasive procedure, frequently requiring the use of adjunctive material such as grafts or biologics, which is time-consuming and associated with expense and morbidity to the patient. Lasers in periodontal regeneration have been reported in the literature, with each wavelength having potential benefits through different laser-tissue interactions. The purpose of this case series was to assess the efficacy of a new dual-wavelength protocol in the management of infrabony defects. Materials and Methods. 32 defects (one in each patient) were treated using ultrasonic debridement, followed by flapless application of Erbium, Chromium:Yttrium, Scandium, Gallium, Garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser (wavelength 2780 nm), and final application of diode laser (wavelength 940 nm). Pocket depths (PD) were measured after 6 months and repeat radiographs taken after one year. Results. The mean baseline PD was 8.8 mm (range 6–15 mm) and 6 months later was 2.4 mm (range 2–4 mm), with mean PD reduction being 6.4 ± 1.7 mm (range 3–12 mm). There was a significant gain in relative linear bone height (apical extent of bone), with mean percentage bone fill of 39.7 ± 41.2% and 53% of sites showing at least 40% infill of bone. Conclusion. The results compare favourably with traditional surgery and require further validation through randomised clinical controlled trials. Rana Al-Falaki, Francis J. Hughes, and Reena Wadia Copyright © 2016 Rana Al-Falaki et al. All rights reserved. Control of Drug Dissolution Rate from Film Dosage Forms Containing Valsartan Mon, 23 May 2016 07:43:42 +0000 Film dosage forms (FDs) containing valsartan (VST), a popular antihypertensive drug, were prepared using a casting method with sodium alginate and other polysaccharides as the film base. Drug dissolution profiles of the FDs were investigated in limited medium. The FDs were 170–200 μm thick and were easy to handle. All FDs immediately swelled and disintegrated in the medium. About 23% of the VST incorporated into the FD prepared with 1.5% sodium alginate dissolved at 5 min. The initial dissolution rate of VST increased upon the addition of chitosan to the film base; this effect was not observed in the case of chitin. On the other hand, the rate apparently decreased upon modification with alginic acid. In addition, the solubility of VST in the dissolution medium was changed by the addition of chitosan or alginic acid. FDs prepared with polysaccharides are useful for simplifying the administration of drugs to patients, and the drug dissolution rate from FDs can be controlled by modification. Yoshifumi Murata, Kyoko Kofuji, and Chieko Maida Copyright © 2016 Yoshifumi Murata et al. All rights reserved. Prevalence and Perspectives of Complementary and Alternative Medicine among University Students in Atlanta, Newcastle upon Tyne, and New Delhi Tue, 03 May 2016 09:48:03 +0000 Objective. A cross-cultural comparative study was developed that surveyed university students in Atlanta (United States), New Delhi (India), and Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom) to understand the prevalence and perspectives of CAM in three urban societies with different healthcare systems. Design. Surveys were sent to students in the three aforementioned cities. Survey distribution occurred over 6 months from May to November 2015. A total of 314 surveys were received. Results. Dietary and vitamin supplements had the highest prevalence collectively (), followed by meditation, yoga, and massage. Commentary analysis showed the importance of science and evidence in justifying CAM practice. Conclusions. Matching the most prevalent practices with their designated NCCAM categories suggested that the students were attracted to biologically based, body-based, and mind-body practices as the central themes of attraction. Selected and prevalent CAM practices suggested the students’ desire to maintain physical and mental fitness. Access to healthcare may have influence on the prevalence of CAM. Indian students were more likely to view CAM as a viable alternative to conventional medicine. Kritika Subramanian and Inuka Midha Copyright © 2016 Kritika Subramanian and Inuka Midha. All rights reserved. Nursing in Ghana: A Search for Florence Nightingale in an African City Thu, 24 Mar 2016 11:03:00 +0000 Nursing in Ghana is a crucial subject that permeates almost every issue in the society especially the field of hospital care. To a large extent, the frontiers of nursing have expanded since the time of Florence Nightingale. Globally some studies have been done to study nursing icons like her. The values in nursing practice however continue to preoccupy our minds. The need to accentuate the gains made by historical figures in nursing in present times as well as the nature of interactions between practitioners and patients continues to be of paramount concern to many across the globe and Ghana in particular. This study does an analysis of existing literature on Florence Nightingale and the nature of nursing in Ghana from the colonial times. Additionally, it analyzes responses concerning the activities of nurses and their interactions with patients in Kumasi. The varied information has been thematically pieced together to make inferences that are of great interest to nursing practitioners, policy makers, administrators, and educators among others. The findings to the study suggest among other things that the challenges faced by the nursing institution in modern times are similar to those of the earlier period. The study calls for the emulation of the positive ideas of Florence Nightingale to promote the interest of patients, a core objective championed by a revered nurse. Samuel Adu-Gyamfi and Edward Brenya Copyright © 2016 Samuel Adu-Gyamfi and Edward Brenya. All rights reserved. Guidelines for Reporting Medical Research: A Critical Appraisal Tue, 22 Mar 2016 15:55:13 +0000 As a response to a low quality of reporting of medical research, guidelines for several different types of study design have been developed to secure accurate reporting and transparency for reviewers and readers from the scientific community. Herein, we review and discuss the six most widely accepted and used guidelines: PRISMA, CONSORT, STROBE, MOOSE, STARD, and SPIRIT. It is concluded that the implementation of these guidelines has led to only a moderate improvement in the quality of the reporting of medical research. There is still much work to be done to achieve accurate and transparent reporting of medical research findings. Mathilde Johansen and Simon Francis Thomsen Copyright © 2016 Mathilde Johansen and Simon Francis Thomsen. All rights reserved. Effectiveness of a Nutrition Education Program to Improve Children’s Chewing Habits Thu, 10 Mar 2016 07:38:46 +0000 This quasi-experimental study determined whether the nutrition education program we developed to promote chewing food properly influenced children’s chewing habits successfully. Four kindergarten classes in Japan (150 children, aged 5-6 years) were studied; one class received the educational program in the classroom and at home (Group A) and three classes received the program in the classroom only (Group B). The educational program was integrated into the classes’ daily curriculum for five weeks. It included storytelling with large picture books, chewing consciously while eating lunch, singing a song with gestures, and greetings before and after meals (both groups). Group A also used a paper textbook and was provided information by the leaflet to encourage guardians to implement the program at home. Chewing habits before and after intervention were evaluated: (1) guardians completed seven questionnaire items related to chewing habits and chewing movement and (2) the number of chews and time spent eating the test meal were measured by a portable chewing sensor. Both approaches improved the children’s chewing habits; however, no difference was found between the two groups. We concluded that this intervention could be used to improve chewing habits in young children even without active involvement of their guardians. Nanae Sato, Fumi Hayashi, and Nobuo Yoshiike Copyright © 2016 Nanae Sato et al. All rights reserved. Exchange Transfusion for Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia in Johannesburg, South Africa, from 2006 to 2011 Mon, 29 Feb 2016 10:50:23 +0000 Background. Severe hyperbilirubinaemia requiring exchange transfusion has become less common in recent years; however, kernicterus still occurs. The aim of this study was to review babies undergoing exchange transfusion for severe hyperbilirubinaemia in a Johannesburg hospital. Methodology. This was a retrospective review of babies who required exchange transfusion in both the neonatal and the paediatric wards from June 1, 2006, to December 31, 2011. Results. There were 64 patients who underwent 67 exchange transfusions. Isoimmune haemolysis (both Rh and ABO incompatibility) was the cause of jaundice in 9/64 (14%). Most babies who underwent exchange transfusion were sick or preterm and were admitted in hospital after birth (38/64; 59.5%); three of these babies died, but not during the exchange transfusion (3/38; 7.9%); all three had signs suggestive of neonatal sepsis. The remaining 26 babies (40.6%) were readmitted to the paediatric wards for exchange transfusion. Six of these babies (6/26; 23.0%) had signs of kernicterus. The most significant complication of exchange transfusion was apnoea requiring mechanical ventilation in three patients (3/64; 4.6%). Conclusion. Despite a relatively low number of babies undergoing exchange transfusion, kernicterus still occurs and must be prevented. Proper protocols for screening and management of severe hyperbilirubinaemia need to be enforced. Daynia E. Ballot and Gilbert Rugamba Copyright © 2016 Daynia E. Ballot and Gilbert Rugamba. All rights reserved. Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Traditional Cosmetics Sold in Tunisian Local Markets Mon, 22 Feb 2016 12:44:50 +0000 This study was undertaken in order to determine heavy metal contents in twelve () henna brands and eleven () kohl products. An analytical test was performed for Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn in henna and kohl products using atomic absorption spectrophotometery. The overall mean concentrations of heavy metals in henna varied between 1.2 and 8.9 μg g−1 for Pb; 0.8 and 18.6 μg g−1 for Cd; 0.5 μg g−1 and 3.3 μg g−1 for Cu; and 3.7 μg g−1 and 90.0 μg g−1 for Zn. As for kohl products, Pb concentrations ranged between 51.1 μg g−1 and 4839.5 μg g−1, Cd concentrations ranged between 1.0 μg g−1 and 158.6 μg g−1, Cu concentrations ranged between 2.5 μg g−1 and 162.5 μg g−1, and Zn concentrations ranged between 0.7 μg g−1 and 185.0 μg g−1. The results of our study revealed that Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn contents in investigated samples were high, making from the prolonged use of such products a potential threat to human health. Therefore, major quality controls are recommended in order to enforce acceptable limits of potential contaminants in cosmetics and good manufacturing practice. Mohamed Anouar Nouioui, Salah Mahjoubi, Asma Ghorbel, Marouen Ben Haj Yahia, Dorra Amira, Hayet Ghorbel, and Abderrazek Hedhili Copyright © 2016 Mohamed Anouar Nouioui et al. All rights reserved. Appraisals of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plants Used by Folk Medicine Practitioners in the Prevention and Management of Malignant Neoplastic Diseases Thu, 14 Jan 2016 16:10:49 +0000 Cancer is a group of diseases which is categorized to differentiate into diverse cell types and move around in the body to sites of organogenesis that is key to the process of tumor genesis. All types of cancer fall into the group of malignant neoplastic diseases. In Bangladesh, cancer is now one of the foremost killer diseases and its personal, social, and economic bearing are huge. Plant-derived natural compounds (vincristine, vinblastine, etoposide, paclitaxel, camptothecin, topotecan, and irinotecan) are useful for the treatment of cancer. Since there is no extensive ethnobotanical research study in Bangladesh regarding the traditional uses of medicinal plants against neoplasms, therefore, a randomized ethnopharmacological surveys were carried out in 3 districts of Bangladesh to learn more about the usage of anticancer medicinal plants and their chemical constituents having antineoplastic activity. Comprehensive interviews were conducted to the folk medicine practitioners and medicinal plants as pointed out by them were photographed, collected, deposited, and identified at the Bangladesh National Herbarium. The various plant parts have been used by the healers which included whole plant, leaves, fruits, barks, roots, and seeds. This study evaluated considerable potential for discovery of novel compounds with less side effects in the management and prevention of malignancy in cancer. Md. Nur Kabidul Azam, Md. Mizanur Rahman, Samanta Biswas, and Md. Nasir Ahmed Copyright © 2016 Md. Nur Kabidul Azam et al. All rights reserved. Dynamic Response of a Rigid Pavement Plate Based on an Inertial Soil Sun, 10 Jan 2016 09:00:27 +0000 This work presents the dynamic response of a pavement plate resting on a soil whose inertia is taken into account in the design of pavements by rational methods. Thus, the pavement is modeled as a thin plate with finite dimensions, supported longitudinally by dowels and laterally by tie bars. The subgrade is modeled via Pasternak-Vlasov type (three-parameter type) foundation models and the moving traffic load is expressed as a concentrated dynamic load of harmonically varying magnitude, moving straight along the plate with a constant acceleration. The governing equation of the problem is solved using the modified Bolotin method for determining the natural frequencies and the wavenumbers of the system. The orthogonal properties of eigenfunctions are used to find the general solution of the problem. Considering the load over the center of the plate, the results showed that the deflections of the plate are maximum about the middle of the plate but are not null at its edges. It is therefore observed that the deflection decreased 18.33 percent when the inertia of the soil is taken into account. This result shows the possible economic gain when taking into account the inertia of soil in pavement dynamic design. Mohamed Gibigaye, Crespin Prudence Yabi, and I. Ezéchiel Alloba Copyright © 2016 Mohamed Gibigaye et al. All rights reserved. Contribution of Ebullition to Methane and Carbon Dioxide Emission from Water between Plant Rows in a Tropical Rice Paddy Field Tue, 29 Dec 2015 13:09:04 +0000 Although bubble ebullition through water in rice paddy fields dominates direct methane (CH4) emissions from paddy soil to the atmosphere in tropical regions, the temporal changes and regulating factors of this ebullition are poorly understood. Bubbles in a submerged paddy soil also contain high concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), implying that CO2 ebullition may occur in addition to CH4 ebullition. We investigated the dynamics of CH4 and CO2 ebullition in tropical rice paddy fields using an automated closed chamber installed between rice plants. Abrupt increases in CH4 concentrations occurred by bubble ebullition. The CO2 concentration in the chamber air suddenly increased at the same time, which indicated that CO2 ebullition was also occurring. The CH4 and CO2 emissions by bubble ebullition were correlated with falling atmospheric pressure and increasing soil surface temperature. The relative contribution of CH4 and CO2 ebullitions to the daily total emissions was 95–97% and 13–35%, respectively. Shujiro Komiya, Kosuke Noborio, Kentaro Katano, Tiwa Pakoktom, Meechai Siangliw, and Theerayut Toojinda Copyright © 2015 Shujiro Komiya et al. All rights reserved. Antibacterial Effect and Physical-Mechanical Properties of Temporary Restorative Material Containing Antibacterial Agents Tue, 29 Dec 2015 09:15:29 +0000 Introduction. For the maintenance of the aseptic chain created during the treatment the coronal sealing becomes paramount. Aim. Evaluating the antibacterial effect and the physical-mechanical properties of a temporary restorative material containing different antibacterial agents. Material and Methods. Two antibacterial agents (triclosan and chloramine T) were manually added to a temporary restorative material used as base (Coltosol). The antibacterial action of the material was analyzed using the agar diffusion method, in pure cultures of Escherichia coli (ATCC BAA-2336) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 11632) and mixed culture of saliva collection. The microleakage rate was analyzed using bovine teeth, previously restored with the materials, and submitted to thermocycling, in a solution of 0.5% methylene blue, for a period of 24 hours. The physical and mechanical properties of the materials analyzed were setting time, water sorption, solubility, and compression strength. Results. No marginal leakage was observed for all groups. There was no statistical significant difference in antimicrobial activity, setting time, water sorption, solubility, and compression strength among the materials. Conclusion. The addition of antibacterial agents on a temporary restorative material did not optimize the antibacterial ability of the material and also did not change its physical-mechanical properties. Amanda Mahammad Mushashe, Carla Castiglia Gonzaga, Paulo Henrique Tomazinho, Leonardo Fernandes da Cunha, Denise Piotto Leonardi, Janes Francio Pissaia, and Gisele Maria Correr Copyright © 2015 Amanda Mahammad Mushashe et al. All rights reserved. Prevalence of Self-Reported Food Allergy in Lebanon: A Middle-Eastern Taste Wed, 16 Dec 2015 08:58:24 +0000 Background. Food allergy (FA) is an important health problem in Western countries but there is limited data on the prevalence of food allergy in the Middle East. The main objective of our study is to assess the prevalence of self-reported food allergy in Lebanon. Methods. The survey was conducted by Telephone Calls questionnaire through random selection of landline phone numbers from the white pages all over Lebanon. A study questionnaire addressing the main objectives of the study was filled during the telephone call conversation. Results. Food allergy prevalence is estimated to be 4.1% in infants and children and 3.2% in adults. 65% of patients suffering from food allergy are females and 35% are males. Skin reactions are the most common symptoms among food allergy sufferers, reported in 86% of the cases. Signs of anaphylaxis appeared in 10.8% of cases. Fruits were the most common allergens at 35%, followed by eggs (19%) and nuts (16%). Cow’s milk and spices ranked fourth (14%). Only half of food allergy sufferers sought medical advice. Allergists, dermatologists, gastroenterologists, or GPs (general practitioners) were consulted. Blood testing for specific IgE was the main diagnostic tool used by physicians. Conclusion. This is a pilot study of self-reported food allergy prevalence in Lebanon based on telephone survey. General prevalence is estimated to be 4.1% in infants and children and 3.2% in adults. Our study may improve awareness for proper diagnosis, food elimination, and acquisition of epinephrine autoinjectors in this part of the world. C. Irani and G. Maalouly Copyright © 2015 C. Irani and G. Maalouly. All rights reserved. Caregiver Preferences regarding Technology’s Role in Supporting Adolescent Weight Management Thu, 26 Nov 2015 11:16:39 +0000 Background. Health technology provides a wealth of strategies to address chronic health issues, such as childhood obesity. Few studies have assessed parental preferences regarding use of health technology to support weight management for adolescents. Objective. This study determined caregiver beliefs, attitudes, and practices towards using traditional methods and technology-based health applications to address weight management among overweight adolescents. Methods. Self-administered surveys were distributed to caregivers of children ages 11–18 years in Stony Brook Children’s Hospital outpatient offices with a BMI ≥ 85th percentile for age, gender. The data were entered into StudyTrax research platform and analyzed using SAS. Results.  . Mean BMI z-score = 1.95 ± 0.50. Two-thirds (65.8%) of caregivers preferred a weight management program that includes both traditional and technology components. Most parents rated involvement in program development (68.1%), access to content (72.4%) as very important. Those who believed their child’s weight was a problem were more likely than other parents to prefer a program that combined both traditional and technology components. Conclusions. Parents’ perceptions of their child’s weight drove preferences about incorporating technology elements into a weight management program. Future weight management programs should incorporate parental content preferences and be tailored to different age groups. Josette M. Bianchi-Hayes, Elinor R. Schoenfeld, Rosa Cataldo, Jiayu Huang, and Susmita Pati Copyright © 2015 Josette M. Bianchi-Hayes et al. All rights reserved. Isolation of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Using Indigenous Chicken Embryos in Kenya Mon, 23 Nov 2015 14:22:52 +0000 Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) isolates were recovered from outbreaks to initiate activities towards developing a local vaccine strain. Use of indigenous chicken embryos was exploited to determine their potential, promote utilization of local resources for research, and enhance household economic activities. Bursa of Fabricius (BFs) samples from outbreaks shown to be IBDV positive was homogenized and inoculated in 4-week-old specific pathogen-free (SPF) IBDV seronegative white leghorn chicks. The harvested virus was inoculated into 11-day-old indigenous chicken embryos that were IBDV seronegative and passaged serially three times after which they were inoculated into 4-week-old indigenous chicks to test for presence and virulence of propagated virus. Out of 153 BFs collected from outbreaks, 43.8% (67/153) were positive for IBDV antigen and 65.7% (44/67) caused disease in SPF chicks. The embryo mean mortalities were 88% on primary inoculation, 94% in 1st passage, 91% in 2nd passage, and 67% in 3rd passage. After the third passage in embryos all the 44 isolates were virulent in 4-week-old indigenous chicks. The results show that indigenous chicken embryos support growth of IBDV and can be used to propagate the virus as an alternative viral propagating tool for respective vaccine preparation. W. U. Mutinda, L. W. Njagi, P. N. Nyaga, L. C. Bebora, P. G. Mbuthia, D. Kemboi, J. W. K. Githinji, and A. Muriuki Copyright © 2015 W. U. Mutinda et al. All rights reserved. Use of a Computed Tomography Based Approach to Validate Noninvasive Devices to Measure Rotational Knee Laxity Sun, 22 Nov 2015 13:19:01 +0000 The purpose of this study is to validate a noninvasive rotational knee laxity measuring device called “Rotameter P2” with an approach based on Computed Tomography (CT). This CT-approach using X-rays is hence invasive and can be regarded as a precise reference method that may also be applied to similar devices. An error due to imperfect femur fixation was observed but can be neglected for small torques. The most significant estimation error is due to the unavoidable soft tissues rotation and hence flexibility in the measurement chain. The error increases with the applied torque. The assessment showed that the rotational knee angle measured with the Rotameter is still overestimated because of thigh and femur displacement, soft tissues deformation, and measurement artefacts adding up to a maximum of 285% error at +15 Nm for the Internal Rotation of female volunteers. This may be questioned if such noninvasive devices for measuring the Tibia-Femoral Rotation (TFR) can help diagnosing knee pathologies and investigate ligament reconstructive surgery. Simon Neumann, Stefan Maas, Danièle Waldmann, Pierre-Louis Ricci, Arno Zürbes, Pierre-Jean Arnoux, Frédéric Walter, and Jens Kelm Copyright © 2015 Simon Neumann et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Rescuers’ Gender and Body Mass Index on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation according to the American Heart Association 2010 Resuscitation Guidelines Wed, 18 Nov 2015 06:39:59 +0000 Background and Objectives. The quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an important factor in determining its overall outcome. This study aims to test the association between rescuers’ gender, Body Mass Index (BMI), and the accuracy of chest compressions (CC) as well as ventilation, according to American Heart Association (AHA) 2010 resuscitation guidelines. Methods. The study included 72 participants of both genders. All the participants received CPR training according to AHA 2010 resuscitation guidelines. One week later, an assessment of their CPR was carried out. Moreover, the weight and height of the participants were measured in order to calculate their BMI. Results. Our analysis showed no significant association between gender and the CC depth () as well as between gender and ventilation (). Females were significantly faster than males in CC (). Regarding BMI, participants with a BMI less than the mean BMI of the study sample tended to perform CC with the correct depth () and to finish CC faster than those with a BMI more than the mean (). On the other hand, no significant association was found between BMI and ventilation (). Conclusion. CPR can be influenced by factors such as gender and BMI, as such the individual rescuer and CPR training programs should take these into account in order to maximize victims’ outcome. Ahmad Jaafar, Mohammad Abdulwahab, and Eman Al-Hashemi Copyright © 2015 Ahmad Jaafar et al. All rights reserved. Improved Iterative Decoding of Network-Channel Codes for Multiple-Access Relay Channel Mon, 09 Nov 2015 10:32:59 +0000 Cooperative communication using relay nodes is one of the most effective means of exploiting space diversity for low cost nodes in wireless network. In cooperative communication, users, besides communicating their own information, also relay the information of other users. In this paper we investigate a scheme where cooperation is achieved using a common relay node which performs network coding to provide space diversity for two information nodes transmitting to a base station. We propose a scheme which uses Reed-Solomon error correcting code for encoding the information bit at the user nodes and convolutional code as network code, instead of XOR based network coding. Based on this encoder, we propose iterative soft decoding of joint network-channel code by treating it as a concatenated Reed-Solomon convolutional code. Simulation results show significant improvement in performance compared to existing scheme based on compound codes. Saikat Majumder and Shrish Verma Copyright © 2015 Saikat Majumder and Shrish Verma. All rights reserved. Numerical Simulation of Nonlinear Pulsatile Newtonian Blood Flow through a Multiple Stenosed Artery Sun, 08 Nov 2015 13:56:22 +0000 An appropriate nonlinear blood flow model under the influence of periodic body acceleration through a multiple stenosed artery is investigated with the help of finite difference method. The arterial segment is simulated by a cylindrical tube filled with a viscous incompressible Newtonian fluid described by the Navier-Stokes equation. The nonlinear equation is solved numerically with the proper boundary conditions and pressure gradient that arise from the normal functioning of the heart. Results are discussed in comparison with the existing models. Satyasaran Changdar and Soumen De Copyright © 2015 Satyasaran Changdar and Soumen De. All rights reserved.