Table of Contents
Journal of Allergy
Volume 2011, Article ID 424203, 10 pages
Review Article

The LLNA: A Brief Review of Recent Advances and Limitations

Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 1095 Willowdale Drive, Morgantown, WV 26505, USA

Received 16 February 2011; Accepted 31 March 2011

Academic Editor: Gordon L. Sussman

Copyright © 2011 Stacey E. Anderson et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Allergic contact dermatitis is the second most commonly reported occupational illness, accounting for 10% to 15% of all occupational diseases. This highlights the importance of developing rapid and sensitive methods for hazard identification of chemical sensitizers. The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) was developed and validated for the identification of low molecular weight sensitizing chemicals. It provides several benefits over other tests for sensitization because it provides a quantitative endpoint, dose-responsive data, and allows for prediction of potency. However, there are also several concerns with this assay including: levels of false positive responses, variability due to vehicle, and predictivity. This report serves as a concise review which briefly summarizes the progress, advances and limitations of the assay over the last decade.