Table of Contents
Journal of Allergy
Volume 2011, Article ID 457169, 11 pages
Research Article

Effects of β Agonists, Corticosteroids, and Novel Therapies on Rhinovirus-Induced Cytokine Release and Rhinovirus Replication in Primary Airway Fibroblasts

1Respiratory Research Group, Discipline of Pharmacology, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
2Woolcock Institute of Medical Research, Sydney, NSW 2037, Australia
3Discipline of Pathology, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
4ANZAC Research Institute, Sydney, NSW 2139, Australia

Received 27 July 2011; Accepted 22 August 2011

Academic Editor: Peter Borger

Copyright © 2011 David Van Ly et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Rhinovirus-(RV-) induced asthma exacerbations account for high asthma-related health costs and morbidity in Australia. The cellular mechanism underlying this pathology is likely the result of RV-induced nuclear-factor-kappa-B-(NF-κB-) dependent inflammation. NF-κB may also be important in RV replication as inhibition of NF-κB inhibits replication of other viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus and cytomegalovirus. To establish the role of NF-κB inhibitors in RV-induced IL- 6 and IL-8 and RV replication, we used pharmacological inhibitors of NF-κB, and steroids and/or β2 agonists were used for comparison. Primary human lung fibroblasts were infected with RV-16 in the presence of NF-κB inhibitors: BAY-117085 and dimethyl fumarate; β2 agonist: salmeterol; and/or corticosteroids: dexamethasone; fluticasone. RV-induced IL-6 and IL-8 and RV replication were assessed using ELISAs and virus titration assays. RV replicated and increased IL-6 and IL-8 release. Salmeterol increased, while dexamethasone and fluticasone decreased RV-induced IL-6 and IL-8 ( ). The NF-κB inhibitor BAY-117085 inhibited only RV-induced IL-6 ( ) and dimethyl fumarate did not alter RV-induced IL-6 and IL-8. Dimethylfumarate increased RV replication whilst other drugs did not alter RV replication. These data suggest that inhibition of NF-κB alone is unlikely to be an effective treatment compared to current asthma therapeutics.