Table of Contents
Journal of Amino Acids
Volume 2010, Article ID 307475, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2010/307475
Research Article

Effects of L -Cystine and L -Theanine Supplementation on the Common Cold: A Randomized, Double-Blind, and Placebo-Controlled Trial

1Research Institute for Health Fundamentals, Ajinomoto Co., Inc., Kanagawa 210-8681, Japan
2Wellness Promotion Center, Ajinomoto Co., Inc., Kanagawa 210-8681, Japan

Received 11 December 2009; Accepted 25 February 2010

Academic Editor: Guoyao Wu

Copyright © 2010 Shigekazu Kurihara et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. T. Heikkinen and A. Jarvinen, “The common cold,” The Lancet, vol. 361, no. 9351, pp. 51–59, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  2. R. B. Turner, “Epidemiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of the common cold,” Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, vol. 78, no. 6, pp. 531–540, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. J. Makela, K. Pauksens, T. Rostila et al., “Clinical efficacy and safety of the orally inhaled neuraminidase inhibitor zanamivir in the treatment of influenza: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled European study,” Journal of Infection, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 42–48, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  4. K. G. Nicholson, F. Y. Aoki, A. D. M. E. Osterhaus et al., “Efficacy and safety of oseltamivir in treatment of acute influenza: a randomised controlled trial. Neuraminidase Inhibitor Flu Treatment Investigator Group,” The Lancet, vol. 355, no. 9218, pp. 1845–1850, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. F. G. Hayden, R. L. Atmar, M. Schilling et al., “Use of the selective oral neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir to prevent influenza,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 341, no. 18, pp. 1336–1343, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. F. G. Hayden, A. D. M. E. Osterhaus, J. J. Treanor et al., “Efficacy and safety of the neuraminidase inhibitor zanamivir in the treatment of influenzavirus infections. GG167 Influenza Study Group,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 337, no. 13, pp. 874–880, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. R. B. Turner, “The treatment of rhinovirus infections: progress and potential,” Antiviral Research, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 1–14, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. Van Straten and P. Josling, “Preventing the common cold with a vitamin C supplement: a double-blind, placebo-controlled survey,” Advances in Therapy, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 151–159, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. P. Josling, “Preventing the common cold with a garlic supplement: a double-blind, placebo-controlled survey,” Advances in Therapy, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 189–193, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. B. Schulten, M. Bulitta, B. Ballering-Bruhl, U. Koster, and M. Schafer, “Efficacy of Echinacea purpurea in patients with a common cold: a placebo-controlled, randomised, double-blind clinical trial,” Arzneimittel-Forschung, vol. 51, no. 7, pp. 563–568, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. L. Coulehan, “Ascorbic acid and the common cold. Reviewing the evidence,” Postgraduate Medicine, vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 153–160, 1979. View at Google Scholar
  12. B. P. Barrett, R. L. Brown, K. Locken, R. Maberry, J. A. Bobula, and D. D'Alessio, “Treatment of the common cold with unrefined Echinacea: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 137, no. 12, pp. 939–946, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. Kurihara, S. Shibahara, H. Arisaka, and Y. Akiyama, “Enhancement of antigen-specific immunoglobulin G production in mice by co-administration of L-cystine and L-theanine,” Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, vol. 69, no. 12, pp. 1263–1270, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. C. Garza, DRIs (DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES) for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids, The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, USA, 2002.
  15. H. Ikematsu, K. Nakamura, S.-I. Harashima, K. Fujii, and N. Fukutomi, “Safety assessment of coenzyme Q10 (Kaneka Q10) in healthy subjects: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial,” Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 212–218, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  16. G. N. Predy, V. Goel, R. Lovlin, A. Donner, L. Stitt, and T. K. Basu, “Efficacy of an extract of North American ginseng containing poly-furanosyl-pyranosyl-saccharides for preventing upper respiratory tract infections: a randomized controlled trial,” Canadian Medical Association Journal, vol. 173, no. 9, pp. 1043–1048, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  17. H. Hemilä, “Vitamin C supplementation and respiratory infections: a systematic review,” Military Medicine, vol. 169, no. 11, pp. 920–925, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. R. Schoop, P. Klein, A. Suter, and S. L. Johnston, “Echinacea in the prevention of induced rhinovirus colds: a meta-analysis,” Clinical Therapeutics, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 174–183, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  19. S. A. Shah, S. Sander, C. M. White, M. Rinaldi, and C. I. Coleman, “Evaluation of echinacea for the prevention and treatment of the common cold: a meta-analysis,” The Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 473–480, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  20. S. De Flora, C. Grassi, and L. Carati, “Attenuation of influenza-like symptomatology and improvement of cell-mediated immunity with long-term N-acetylcysteine treatment,” European Respiratory Journal, vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 1535–1541, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. Papi, N. G. Papadopoulos, L. A. Stanciu et al., “Reducing agents inhibit rhinovirus-induced up-regulation of the rhinovirus receptor intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in respiratory epithelial cells,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 16, no. 14, pp. 1934–1936, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. R. M. Douglas, H. Hemilä, E. Chalker, and B. Treacy, “Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 3, Article ID CD000980, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  23. W. Riedel and G. Maulik, “Fever: an integrated response of the central nervous system to oxidative stress,” Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 196, no. 1-2, pp. 125–132, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. A. M. Sadowska, Y. K. B. Manuel, and W. A. De Backer, “Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory efficacy of NAC in the treatment of COPD: discordant in vitro and in vivo dose-effects: a review,” Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 9–22, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  25. K. Miyagawa, Y. Hayashi, S. Kurihara, and A. Maeda, “Co-administration of L-cystine and L-theanine enhances efficacy of influenza vaccination in elderly persons: nutritional status-dependent immunogenicity,” Geriatrics and Gerontology International, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 243–250, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  26. S. Murakami, S. Kurihara, N. Koikawa et al., “Effects of oral supplementation with cystine and theanine on the immune function of athletes in endurance exercise: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry, vol. 73, no. 4, pp. 817–821, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus