Table of Contents
Journal of Amino Acids
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 230613, 8 pages
Research Article

Intracisternally Injected L-Proline Activates Hypothalamic Supraoptic, but Not Paraventricular, Vasopressin-Expressing Neurons in Conscious Rats

Department of Neurophysiology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Kasumi 1-2-3, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551, Japan

Received 31 May 2011; Revised 4 August 2011; Accepted 7 August 2011

Academic Editor: Guoyao Wu

Copyright © 2011 Yumi Takemoto. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


When injected into specific rat brain regions, the neurotransmitter candidate L-proline produces various cardiovascular changes through ionotropic excitatory amino acid receptors. The present study used an immunohistochemical double-labeling approach to determine whether intracisternally injected L-proline in freely moving rats, which increases blood pressure, activates hypothalamic vasopressin-expressing neurons and ventral medullary tyrosine-hydroxylase- (TH-) containing neurons. Following injection of L-proline, the number of activated hypothalamic neurons that coexpressed vasopressin and c-Fos was much greater in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) than in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of rats with increased blood pressure. The number of activated TH-containing neurons was significantly greater following L-proline treatment than following control injections of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF). These results clearly demonstrate that intracisternally injected L-proline activates hypothalamic supraoptic, but not paraventricular, vasopressin-expressing neurons and medullary TH-containing (A1/C1) neurons in freely moving rats.