Table of Contents
Journal of Applied Chemistry
Volume 2014, Article ID 648453, 9 pages
Research Article

Bioavailability Studies of Metals in Surface Water of River Challawa, Nigeria

1Department of Chemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
2National Research Institute for Chemical Technology, PMB 1052, Zaria, Nigeria
3Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Federal College of Education, Zuba, Nigeria
4Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Federal College of Education, Zuba, Nigeria

Received 6 May 2014; Accepted 20 August 2014; Published 15 September 2014

Academic Editor: Christos Kordulis

Copyright © 2014 A. Uzairu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Due to industrialization of Kano City, more industries located within Challawa industrial estate have discharged waste informed of effluents into River Challawa, which is the main source of irrigation water for agricultural land. Hence, this study is aim at assessing the bioavailable fractions of the metals zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr) and cadmium (Cd) in surface water of river Challawa, Kano, Nigeria, across seasons. It was found that the concentrations of most metals increased significantly during the dry seasons. Concentrations of Cu and Zn are within the standard limits of EPA and WHO for these metals in drinking water while Pb, Cr, and Cd have their concentrations higher than EPA and WHO standard limits. Analysis of relationship between metals indicated significant positive correlation () between Cr and Zn, in all seasons with exception of warm and dry season. This might explain the consistent variation of these metals in the sites in a particular season. Also, significant negative correlation was observed between Cd and Cu (hot and dry season). The chemical fractionation trends were found to be dominated by particulate fractions of metals studied except Zn (cool and dry season) and Cd. The highest percentages of all metals analysed were found in the particulate fraction with exception of Cd. This could reflect less availability of this metal to the immediate environment. However, availability of metals such as Cd, Cr, and Pb in the dissolved and mobile fractions reflects the greater tendency to become available to the aquatic system and through the food chain to man.