Table of Contents
Journal of Applied Chemistry
Volume 2014, Article ID 706291, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/706291
Review Article

Methods for Detection of Aflatoxins in Agricultural Food Crops

1Microbiology and Biotechnology Centre, Department of Product Development, Uganda Industrial Research Institute, P.O. Box 7086, Kampala, Uganda
2Department of Biochemistry and Sports Science, School of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7082, Kampala, Uganda

Received 25 August 2014; Accepted 18 October 2014; Published 13 November 2014

Academic Editor: Zhen Cheng

Copyright © 2014 Alex P. Wacoo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. W. Bennett and M. Klich, “Mycotoxins,” Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 497–516, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. G. C. Dors, S. Caldas, V. Feddern et al., “Aflatoxins: contamination, analysis and control,” in Aflatoxins-Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, pp. 415–438, InTech, Shanghai, China, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  3. H. Gourama and L. B. Bullerman, “Detection of molds in foods and feeds: potential rapid and selective methods,” Journal of Food Protection, vol. 58, no. 12, pp. 1389–1394, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. H. S. Hussein and J. M. Brasel, “Toxicity, metabolism, and impact of mycotoxins on humans and animals,” Toxicology, vol. 167, no. 2, pp. 101–134, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. M. Cullen, P. M. Newberne, D. Eaton, and J. Groopman, “Acute hepatotoxicity of aflatoxins,” in The Toxicology of Aflatoxins: Human Health, Veterinary and Agricultural Significance, pp. 3–26, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  6. W. T. Kok, “Derivatization reactions for the determination of aflatoxins by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection,” Journal of Chromatography B: Biomedical Sciences and Applications, vol. 659, no. 1-2, pp. 127–137, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. Ayub and D. Sachan, “Dietary factors affecting aflatoxin bi carcinogenicity,” Malaysian Journal of Nutrition, vol. 3, pp. 161–197, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  8. J. Stroka and E. Anklam, “New strategies for the screening and determination of aflatoxins and the detection of aflatoxin-producing moulds in food and feed,” TrAC—Trends in Analytical Chemistry, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 90–95, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. C. P. Wild and P. C. Turner, “The toxicology of aflatoxins as a basis for public health decisions,” Mutagenesis, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 471–481, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. E. P. Gallagher, K. L. Kunze, P. L. Stapleton, and D. L. Eaton, “The kinetics of aflatoxin B1 oxidation by human cDNA-expressed and human liver microsomal cytochromes P450 1A2 and 3A4,” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, vol. 141, no. 2, pp. 595–606, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. Vondracek, Z. Xi, P. Larsson et al., “Cytochrome P450 expression and related metabolism in human buccal mucosa,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 481–488, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. F. P. Guengerich, W. W. Johnson, T. Shimada, Y.-F. Ueng, H. Yamazaki, and S. Langouët, “Activation and detoxication of aflatoxin B1,” Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, vol. 402, no. 1-2, pp. 121–128, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. G. S. Bbosa, D. Kitya, J. Odda, and J. Ogwal-Okeng, “Aflatoxins metabolism, effects on epigenetic mechanisms and their role in carcinogenesis,” Health, vol. 5, no. 10, pp. 14–34, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. W. W. Johnson, H. Yamazaki, T. Shimada, Y.-F. Ueng, and F. P. Guengerich, “Aflatoxin B1 8,9-epoxide hydrolysis in the presence of rat and human epoxide hydrolase,” Chemical Research in Toxicology, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 672–676, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. W. W. Johnson, T. M. Harris, and F. P. Guengerich, “Kinetics and mechanism of hydrolysis of aflatoxin B1 exo-8,9-epoxide and rearrangement of the dihydrodiol,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 118, no. 35, pp. 8213–8220, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. D. Hayes, D. J. Judah, and G. E. Neal, “Resistance to aflatoxin B1 is associated with the expression of a novel aldo-keto reductase which has catalytic activity towards a cytotoxic aldehyde-containing metabolite of the toxin,” Cancer Research, vol. 53, no. 17, pp. 3887–3894, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. L. P. Knight, T. Primiano, J. D. Groopman, T. W. Kensler, and T. R. Sutter, “cDNA cloning, expression and activity of a second human aflatoxin B1-metabolizing member of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily, AKR7A3,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 1215–1223, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. Y. Nassar, S. E. Megalla, H. M. Abd El-Fattah, A. H. Hafez, and T. S. El-Deap, “Binding of aflatoxin b1, g1 and M to plasma albumin,” Mycopathologia, vol. 79, no. 1, pp. 35–38, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. K.-H. Kiessling, “Biochemical mechanism of action of mycotoxins,” Pure and Applied Chemistry, vol. 58, pp. 327–338, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  20. A. Papadopoulou-Bouraoui, J. Stroka, and E. Anklam, “Comparison of two post-column derivatization systems, ultraviolet irradiation and electrochemical determination, for the liquid chromatographic determination of aflatoxins in food,” Journal of AOAC International, vol. 85, no. 2, pp. 411–416, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. C. de Oliveira and P. Germano, “Aflatoxins: current concepts on mechanisms of toxicity and their involvement in the etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma,” Revista de Saúde Pública, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 417–424, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. D. D. Levy, J. D. Groopman, S. E. Lim, M. M. Seidman, and K. H. Kraemer, “Sequence specificity of aflatoxin B1-induced mutations in a plasmid replicated in xeroderma pigmentosum and DNA repair proficient human cells,” Cancer Research, vol. 52, no. 20, pp. 5668–5673, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. F. Aguilar, S. P. Hussain, and P. Cerutti, “Aflatoxin B1 induces the transversion of G T in codon 249 of the p53 tumor suppressor gene in human hepatocytes,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 90, no. 18, pp. 8586–8590, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. D. L. Eaton and E. P. Gallagher, “Mechanisms of aflatoxin carcinogenesis,” Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, vol. 34, pp. 135–172, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. McLean and M. F. Dutton, “Cellular interactions and metabolism of aflatoxin: an update,” Pharmacology & Therapeutics, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 163–192, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. P. Li, Q. Zhang, and W. Zhang, “Immunoassays for aflatoxins,” TrAC—Trends in Analytical Chemistry, vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 1115–1126, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. N. Pascale, “Detection methods for mycotoxins in cereal grains and cereal products,” Zbornik Matice Srpske za Prirodne Nauke, vol. 117, pp. 15–25, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  28. I. Y. Goryacheva, S. de Saeger, S. A. Eremin, and C. van Peteghem, “Immunochemical methods for rapid mycotoxin detection: evolution from single to multiple analyte screening: a review,” Food Additives and Contaminants, vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 1169–1183, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. Z. Zheng, J. L. Richard, and J. Binder, “A review of rapid methods for the analysis of mycotoxins,” Mycopathologia, vol. 161, no. 5, pp. 261–273, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. I. Balzer, C. Bogdanić, and S. Pepeljnjak, “Rapid thin layer chromatographic method for determining aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, and zearalenone in corn,” Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 584–585, 1978. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. D. L. Park, M. W. Trucksess, S. Nesheim, M. Stack, and R. F. Newell, “Solvent-efficient thin-layer chromatographic method for the determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in corn and peanut products: collaborative study,” Journal of AOAC International, vol. 77, no. 3, pp. 637–646, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. Y. Liang, M. E. Baker, B. T. Yeager, and M. B. Denton, “Quantitative analysis of aflatoxins by high-performance thin-layer chromatography utilizing a scientifically operated charge-coupled device detector,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 68, no. 22, pp. 3885–3891, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. A. Rahmani, S. Jinap, and F. Soleimany, “Qualitative and quantitative analysis of mycotoxins,” Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 202–251, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. M. Kokkonen, M. Jestoi, and A. Rizzo, “Determination of selected mycotoxins in mould cheeses with liquid chromatography coupled tandem with mass spectrometry,” Food Additives and Contaminants, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 449–456, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. B. R. Malone, C. W. Humphrey, T. R. Romer, and J. L. Richard, “Determination of aflatoxins in grains and raw peanuts by a rapid procedure with fluorometric analysis,” Journal of AOAC International, vol. 83, no. 1, pp. 95–98, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. T. Pearson, D. Wicklow, E. Maghirang, F. Xie, and F. Dowell, “Detecting aflatoxin in single corn kernels by transmittance and reflectance spectroscopy,” Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 1247–1254, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. P. Sun and Y. Chu, “A simple solid-phase radioimmunoassay for aflatoxin b1,” Journal of Food Safety, vol. 1, pp. 67–75, 1979. View at Google Scholar
  38. B. S. Delmulle, S. M. D. G. de Saeger, L. Sibanda, I. Barna-Vetro, and C. H. van Peteghem, “Development of an immunoassay-based lateral flow dipstick for the rapid detection of aflatoxin B1 in pig feed,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 53, no. 9, pp. 3364–3368, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. P. B. Luppa, L. J. Sokoll, and D. W. Chan, “Immunosensor—principles and applications to clinical chemistry,” Clinica Chimica Acta, vol. 314, no. 1-2, pp. 1–26, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. B. van der Gaag, S. Spath, H. Dietrich et al., “Biosensors and multiple mycotoxin analysis,” Food Control, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 251–254, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. Z. Liron, L. M. Tender, J. P. Golden, and F. S. Ligler, “Voltage-induced inhibition of antigen-antibody binding at conducting optical waveguides,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol. 17, no. 6-7, pp. 489–494, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. H. Yu, C. M. Eggleston, J. Chen, W. Wang, Q. Dai, and J. Tang, “Optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS) as a sensor for thin film and quantum dot corrosion,” Sensors, vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 17330–17342, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. N. Adányi, I. A. Levkovets, S. Rodriguez-Gil, A. Ronald, M. Váradi, and I. Szendro, “Development of immunosensor based on OWLS technique for determining Aflatoxin B1 and Ochratoxin A,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 797–802, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. L. Masoomi, O. Sadeghi, M. H. Banitaba, A. Shahrjerdi, and S. S. H. Davarani, “A non-enzymatic nanomagnetic electro-immunosensor for determination of Aflatoxin B1 as a model antigen,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 177, pp. 1122–1127, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. Z. Linting, L. Ruiyi, L. Zaijun, X. Qianfang, F. Yinjun, and L. Junkang, “An immunosensor for ultrasensitive detection of aflatoxin B1 with an enhanced electrochemical performance based on graphene/conducting polymer/gold nanoparticles/the ionic liquid composite film on modified gold electrode with electrodeposition,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 174, pp. 359–365, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. T. Bertuzzi, S. Rastelli, A. Mulazzi, and A. Pietri, “Evaluation and improvement of extraction methods for the analysis of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 from naturally contaminated maize,” Food Analytical Methods, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 512–519, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. S. L. Taylor, J. W. King, J. L. Richard, and J. I. Greer, “Analytical-scale supercritical fluid extraction of aflatoxin b1 from field-inoculated corn,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 910–913, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. J. Stroka, M. Petz, U. Joerissen, and E. Anklam, “Investigation of various extractants for the analysis of aflatoxin B1 in different food and feed matrices,” Food Additives and Contaminants, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 331–338, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. I. Arranz, E. Sizoo, H. van Egmond et al., “Determination of aflatoxin B1 in medical herbs: interlaboratory study,” Journal of AOAC International, vol. 89, no. 3, pp. 595–605, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. A. Gallo, F. Masoero, T. Bertuzzi, G. Piva, and A. Pietri, “Effect of the inclusion of adsorbents on aflatoxin B-1 quantification in animal feedstuffs,” Food Additives and Contaminants—Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 54–63, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. N. A. Lee, S. Wang, R. D. Allan, and I. R. Kennedy, “A rapid aflatoxin B1 Elisa: development and validation with reduced matrix effects for peanuts, corn, pistachio, and soybeans,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 52, no. 10, pp. 2746–2755, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. F. Ma, R. Chen, P. Li, Q. Zhang, W. Zhang, and X. Hu, “Preparation of an immunoaffinity column with amino-silica gel microparticles and its application in sample cleanup for aflatoxin detection in agri-products,” Molecules, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 2222–2235, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. P. M. Scott and M. W. Trucksess, “Application of immunoaffinity columns to mycotoxin analysis,” Journal of AOAC International, vol. 80, no. 5, pp. 941–949, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. W. L. Shelver, G. L. Larsen, and J. K. Huwe, “Use of an immunoaffinity column for tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin serum sample cleanup,” Journal of Chromatography B: Biomedical Applications, vol. 705, no. 2, pp. 261–268, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. A. Braithwaite, F. J. Smith, and R. Stock, Chromatographic Methods, Chapman and Hall, 1985.
  56. K. E. Sapsford, C. R. Taitt, S. Fertig et al., “Indirect competitive immunoassay for detection of aflatoxin B1 in corn and nut products using the array biosensor,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 2298–2305, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. H. de Iongh, R. Vles, and P. de Vogel, “The occurrence and detection of aflatoxin in food,” in Proceedings of the Symposium on Mycotoxins in Foodstuffs, G. H. Wogan, Ed., p. 235, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass, USA, 1964.
  58. V. Betina, “Thin-layer chromatography of mycotoxins,” Journal of Chromatography, vol. 334, no. 3, pp. 211–276, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. H. Gulyas, “Determination of aflatoxins b1, b2, g1, g2 and m1 by high pressure thin layer chromatography,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 319, pp. 105–111, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  60. K. M. Abdel-Gawad and A. A. Zohri, “Fungal flora and mycotoxins of six kinds of nut seeds for human consumption in Saudi Arabia,” Mycopathologia, vol. 124, no. 1, pp. 55–64, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. Y. M. H. Younis and K. M. Malik, “Tlc and hplc analysis of aflatoxin contamination in sudanese peanut and peanut products,” Kuwait Journal of Science and Engineering, vol. 30, no. 1, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. M. Trucksess, W. Brumley, and S. Nesheim, “Rapid quantitation and confirmation of aflatoxins in corn and peanut butter, using a disposable silica gel column, thin layer chromatography, and gas chromatography/mass spectromety,” Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, vol. 67, no. 5, pp. 973–975, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. E. Papp, K. H-Otta, G. Záray, and E. Mincsovics, “Liquid chromatographic determination of aflatoxins,” Microchemical Journal, vol. 73, no. 1-2, pp. 39–46, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. J. Ramesh, G. Sarathchandra, and V. Sureshkumar, “Analysis of feed samples for aflatoxin b1 contamination by hptlc-a validated method,” International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, vol. 2, pp. 373–377, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  65. S. Nawaz, R. D. Coker, and S. J. Haswell, “Development and evaluation of analytical methodology for the determination of aflatoxins in palm kernels,” Analyst, vol. 117, no. 1, pp. 67–74, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. P. Li, Q. Zhang, D. Zhang et al., “Aflatoxin measurement and analysis,” in Aflatoxins—Detection, Measurement and Control, I. Torres-Pacheco, Ed., pp. 183–208, Intech, Shanghai, China, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  67. R. Malviya, V. Bansal, O. P. Pal, and P. K. Sharma, “High performance liquid chromatography: a short review,” Journal of Global Pharma Technology, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 22–26, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. Y. Xiang, Y. Liu, and M. L. Lee, “Ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography using elevated temperature,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1104, no. 1-2, pp. 198–202, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. W. T. Kok, T. C. H. van Neer, W. A. Traag, and L. G. T. Tuinstra, “Determination of aflatoxins in cattle feed by liquid chromatography and post-column derivatization with electrochemically generated bromine,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 367, pp. 231–236, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. S. M. Herzallah, “Determination of aflatoxins in eggs, milk, meat and meat products using HPLC fluorescent and UV detectors,” Food Chemistry, vol. 114, no. 3, pp. 1141–1146, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. M. Takino and T. Tanaka, Determination of Aflatoxins in Food by LC-MS/MS, Agilent Technologies, 2008.
  72. R. F. Boyer, Modern Experimental Biochemistry, Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, 1993.
  73. M. N. Pascale, “Detection methods for mycotoxins in cereal grains and cereal products,” Matica Srpska Proceedings for Natural Sciences, vol. 117, pp. 15–25, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  74. P. Scott, “Mycotoxin methodology,” Food Additives & Contaminants, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 395–403, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. Y. Liang, C. Zhang, and L. Liu, “Chromatographic analysis of mycotoxins,” Zhongguo Weisheng Jianyan Zazhi, vol. 15, p. 1273, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  76. H. Petterson and W. Langseth, “Intercomparison of trichothecenes analysis and feasibility to produce certified calibrants,” EU Reports EUR 20285, European Commission BCR Information Project, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  77. D. Babu, Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Aflatoxin in Animal Feeds and Food Grains Using Immunomagnetic Bead Based Recovery and Real-Time Immuno Quantitative PCR (RT-iqPCR) Assay, Oklahoma State University, 2010.
  78. M. E. S. Mirghani, Y. B. C. Man, S. Jinap, B. S. Baharin, and J. Bakar, “A new method for determining aflatoxins in groundnut and groundnut cake using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance,” Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, vol. 78, no. 10, pp. 985–992, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. A. Sargent and O. A. Sadik, “Monitoring antibody-antigen reactions at conducting polymer-based immunosensors using impedance spectroscopy,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 44, no. 26, pp. 4667–4675, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. S. A. Berson and R. S. Yalow, “General principles of radioimmunoassay,” Clinica Chimica Acta, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 51–69, 1968. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. D. S. Skelley, L. P. Brown, and P. K. Besch, “Radioimmunoassay.,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 146–186, 1973. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. P. Rauch, L. Fukal, J. Prošek, P. Březina, and J. Káš, “Radioimmunoassay of aflatoxin M1,” Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, vol. 117, no. 3, pp. 163–169, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. J. J. Langone and H. van Vunakis, “Aflatoxin B1: specific antibodies and their use in radioimmunoassay,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 591–595, 1976. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. S. Tsuboi, T. Nakagawa, M. Tomita et al., “Detection of aflatoxin B1 in serum samples of male Japanese subjects by radioimmunoassay and high-performance liquid chromatography,” Cancer Research, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 1231–1234, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. T. C. Tseng, C. Chow, and G. Waller, “Immunoassay in mycotoxin research,” in Phytochemical Ecology: Allelochemicals, Mycotoxins and Insect Phenomones and Allomones, p. 363, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  86. R. Twyman, Immunoassays, applications, 2005.
  87. S. Avrameas, “Coupling of enzymes to proteins with glutaraldehyde. Use of the conjugates for the detection of antigens and antibodies,” Immunochemistry, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 43–52, 1969. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. R. M. Lequin, “Enzyme immunoassay (eia)/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa),” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 51, pp. 2415–2418, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  89. V. Anjaiah, V. Mehan, S. Jayanthi, D. Reddy, and D. McDonald, “Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for aflatoxin b1 estimation in groundnuts,” 1989.
  90. K. T. Devi, M. Mayo, K. Reddy et al., “Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies for aflatoxin B1,” Letters in Applied Microbiology, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 284–288, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. K. Thirumala-Devi, M. A. Mayo, A. J. Hall et al., “Development and application of an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunoassay for aflatoxin M1 in milk and milk-based confectionery,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 933–937, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. O. Kawamura, S. Nagayama, S. Sato, K. Ohtani, I. Ueno, and Y. Ueno, “A monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of aflatoxin B 1 in peanut products,” Mycotoxin Research, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 75–88, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. D. Ondieki1, S. T. Lutta, M. O. Okoth, and P. Kering, “Rapid assessment of aflatoxin contamination of groundnuts by thin layer chromatography and competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay from selected divisions of Busia county in Kenya,” African Journal of Food Science and Technology, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 12–20, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  94. A. Ostadrahimi, F. Ashrafnejad, A. Kazemi et al., “Aflatoxin in raw and salt-roasted nuts (pistachios, peanuts and walnuts) sold in markets of tabriz, iran,” Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology, vol. 7, no. 1, Article ID e8674, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  95. B. Huybrechts, Evaluation of Immunoassay Kits for Aflatoxin Determination in Corn & Rice, CODA-CERVA, National Reference Laboratory on Mycotoxins, 2011.
  96. J. J. Pestka, P. K. Gaur, and F. S. Chu, “Quantitation of aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin B1 antibody by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent microassay,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 1027–1031, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. D. L. Park, B. M. Miller, L. P. Hart et al., “Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for screening aflatoxin B1 in cottonseed products and mixed feed: collaborative study,” Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, vol. 72, no. 2, pp. 326–332, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. J.-A. Ho and R. Wauchope, “A strip liposome immunoassay for aflatoxin B1,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 74, no. 7, pp. 1493–1496, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. C. L. Morgan, D. J. Newman, and C. P. Price, “Immunosensors: technology and opportunities in laboratory medicine,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 193–209, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. F. Ricci, G. Volpe, L. Micheli, and G. Palleschi, “A review on novel developments and applications of immunosensors in food analysis,” Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 605, no. 2, pp. 111–129, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. L. Zhou, X. He, D. He, K. Wang, and D. Qin, “Biosensing technologies for Mycobacterium tuberculosis detection: status and new developments,” Clinical and Developmental Immunology, vol. 2011, Article ID 193963, 8 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. K. Spinella, L. Mosiello, G. Palleschi, and F. Vitali, “Development of a qcm (quartz crystal microbalance) biosensor to the detection of aflatoxin b1,” Open Journal of Applied Biosensor, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 112–119, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  103. X. Jin, X. Liu, L. Chen, J. Jiang, G. Shen, and R. Yu, “Biocatalyzed deposition amplification for detection of aflatoxin B1 based on quartz crystal microbalance,” Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 645, no. 1-2, pp. 92–97, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. H. Vaisocherová, K. Mrkvová, M. Piliarik, P. Jinoch, M. Šteinbachová, and J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance biosensor for direct detection of antibody against Epstein-Barr virus,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 1020–1026, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. M. A. Brusatori, Y. Tie, and P. R. van Tassel, “Protein adsorption kinetics under an applied electric field: an optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy study,” Langmuir, vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 5089–5097, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. S. J. Daly, G. J. Keating, P. P. Dillon et al., “Development of surface plasmon resonance-based immunoassay for aflatoxin B1,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 48, no. 11, pp. 5097–5104, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. C. A. Rowe-Taitt, J. W. Hazzard, K. E. Hoffman, J. J. Cras, J. P. Golden, and F. S. Ligler, “Simultaneous detection of six biohazardous agents using a planar waveguide array biosensor,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol. 15, no. 11-12, pp. 579–589, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. A. Székács, N. Adányi, I. Székács, K. Majer-Baranyi, and I. Szendrő, “Optical waveguide light-mode spectroscopy immunosensors for environmental monitoring,” Applied Optics, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. B151–B158, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. G. L. Duveneck, A. P. Abel, M. A. Bopp, G. M. Kresbach, and M. Ehrat, “Planar waveguides for ultra-high sensitivity of the analysis of nucleic acids,” Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 469, no. 1, pp. 49–61, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. A.-L. Välimaa, A. T. Kivistö, P. I. Leskinen, and M. T. Karp, “A novel biosensor for the detection of zearalenone family mycotoxins in milk,” Journal of Microbiological Methods, vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 44–48, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. J. H. Owino, O. A. Arotiba, N. Hendricks et al., “Electrochemical immunosensor based on polythionine/gold nanoparticles for the determination of aflatoxin B1,” Sensors, vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 8262–8274, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. Y. Liu, Z. Qin, X. Wu, and H. Jiang, “Immune-biosensor for aflatoxin B1 based bio-electrocatalytic reaction on micro-comb electrode,” Biochemical Engineering Journal, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 211–217, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus