Table of Contents
Journal of Applied Chemistry
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 750818, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/750818
Research Article

Extraction and Characterization of Fibres from the Stalk and Spikelets of Empty Fruit Bunch

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Higher Technical Teachers’ Training College, The University of Bamenda, P.O. Box 34, Bambili, Cameroon
2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ecole Normale Superieur d’ Enseignement Technique (ENSET), University of Douala, Douala, Cameroon
3Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon
4School of Engineering, University of Technology, Kingston, Jamaica

Received 19 March 2015; Revised 18 May 2015; Accepted 27 May 2015

Academic Editor: Parsotam H. Parsania

Copyright © 2015 Yakum Reneta Nafu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. H. P. S. A. Khalil, H. M. Fizree, M. Jawaid, and O. S. Alattas, “Preparation and characterization of nano structured materials from oil palm ash: a bio-agricultural waste from oil palm mill,” Bioresources, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 4537–4546, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  2. M. P. O. C. (MPOC), World's Oil Production in 2007, MPOC, 2007.
  3. N. E. G. Frank, M. M. E. Albert, D. E. E. Laverdure, and K. Paul, “Assessment of the quality of crude palm oil from smallholders in Cameroon,” Journal of Stored Products and Postharvest Research, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 52–58, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  4. A. B. Nasrin, A. N. Ma, Y. M. Choo et al., “Oil palm biomass as potential substitution raw material from commercial biomass briquettes production,” American Journal of Applied Sciences, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 2404–2421, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  5. G. Anli, “Conversion of oil palm empty fruit bunch to biofuels,” in Liquid, Gaseous and Solid Biofuels—Conversion Techniques, chapter 16, InTech, Rijeka, Croatia, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. K. W. Chan, I. Watson, and K. C. Um, “Use of oil palm waste material for increased production,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Soil Science and Agricultural Development in Malaysia, E. Pushparajah and S. L. Chin, Eds., pp. 213–241, Malaysian Society of Soil Science, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 1981.
  7. J. A. García-Núñez, M. García-Pérez, and K. C. Das, “Determination of kinetic parameters of thermal degradation of palm oil mill by-products using thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry,” Transactions of the ASABE, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 547–557, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. T. L. Chew and S. Bhatia, “Catalytic processes towards the production of biofuels in a palm oil and oil palm biomass-based biorefinery,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 99, no. 17, pp. 7911–7922, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. M. Ishola, R. Millati, S. Syamsiah, M. N. Cahyanto, C. Niklasson, and M. J. Taherzadeh, “Structural changes of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) after fungal and phosphoric acid pretreatment,” Molecules, vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 14995–15012, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. F. Ahmad, F. Bateni, M. S. Tavana, and A. S. Yahaya, Application of Thermoplastics in Protection of Natural Fibres, Thermoplastic Elastomers, P. A. El-Sonbati, Ed., InTech, 2012.
  11. M. J. John and S. Thomas, “Biofibres and biocomposites,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 71, no. 3, pp. 343–364, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. T. Y. Ying, L. K. Teong, W. N. Abdullah, and L. C. Peng, “The effect of various pretreatment methods on oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and kenaf core fibers for sugar production,” Procedia Environmental Sciences, vol. 20, pp. 328–335, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. R. N. Nkongho, Y. Nchanji, O. Tataw, and P. Levang, “Less oil but more money! Artisanal palm oil milling in Cameroon,” African Journal of Agricultural Research, vol. 9, no. 20, pp. 1586–1596, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  14. K. Poku, Small-Scale Palm Oil Processing in Africa, FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin, FAO, Rome, Italy, 2002.
  15. J. C. Igwe and C. C. Onyegbado, “A review of palm oil mill effluent (Pome) water treatment,” Global Journal of Environmental Research, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 54–62, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  16. K. Wang, J. X. Jiang, F. Xu, and R. C. Sun, “Influence of steaming pressure on steam explosion pretreatment of Lespedeza stalks (Lespedeza crytobotrya): part 1. Characteristics of degraded cellulose,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 94, no. 9, pp. 1379–1388, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. Jacob, S. Thomas, and K. T. Varughese, “Mechanical properties of sisal/oil palm hybrid fiber reinforced natural rubber composites,” Composites Science and Technology, vol. 64, no. 7-8, pp. 955–965, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. S. Sreekala, J. George, M. G. Kumaran, and S. Thomas, “Water-sorption kinetics in oil palm fibers,” Journal of Polymer Science, Part B: Polymer Physics, vol. 39, no. 11, pp. 1215–1223, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. S. Sreekala, M. G. Kumaran, and S. Thomas, “Oil palm fibers: morphology, chemical composition, surface modification, and mechanical properties,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 66, no. 5, pp. 821–835, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. H. J. William, P. Olivia, P. H. Immanuella, and T. Juliana, “Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) bunch structure variation and limitations,” Scientific Research Journal, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 5–10, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  21. N. Blumenkrantz and G. Asboe Hansen, “New method for quantitative determination of uronic acids,” Analytical Biochemistry, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 484–489, 1973. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. T. N. Rodrigue, “Mechanical characterization of bamboo filaments of raffia,” in Mechanical Engineering, ENSP, Yaounde, Cameroon, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  23. J. Benton, J. Jones, and W. V. Case, “Sampling, handling and analyzing plant tissue samples,” in Soil Testing and Plant Analysis, R. L. Westerman, Ed., Soil Science Society of America, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  24. A. Buondonno, A. A. Rashad, and E. Coppola, “Comparing tests for soil fertility II. The hydrogen peroxide/sulfuric acid treatment as an alternative to the copper/selenium catalyzed digestion process for routine determination of soil nitrogen-Kjeldahl,” Communications in Soil Science & Plant Analysis, vol. 26, no. 9-10, pp. 1607–1619, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. M. Anderson and J. S. I. Ingram, Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility: A Handbook of Methods, CAB International, The Cambrian News, Aberstwyth, UK, 2nd edition, 1993.
  26. M. Khalid, C. T. Ratnam, C. A. Luqman, A. Salmiaton, T. S. Y. Choong, and H. Jalaludin, “Thermal and dynamic mechanical behavior of cellulose- and Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB)-filled polypropylene biocomposites,” Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, vol. 48, no. 12, pp. 1244–1251, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. R. W. Scott and P. Gifford, “Influence of cations on the alkaline extraction of Xylan and glucomannan from pine pulps,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 38, pp. 907–914, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  28. B.-L. Xue, J.-L. Wen, F. Xu, and R.-C. Sun, “Structural characterization of hemicelluloses fractionated by graded ethanol precipitation from Pinus yunnanensis,” Carbohydrate Research, vol. 352, pp. 159–165, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. P. Ramadevi, D. Sampathkumar, C. V. Srinivasa, and B. Bennehalli, “Effect of alkali treatment on the water absorption of single cellulosic abaca fiber,” Bioresources, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 3515–3524, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. H. P. S. A. Khalil, H. Ismail, H. D. Rozman, and M. N. Ahmad, “The effect of acetylation on interfacial shear strength between plant fibres and various matrices,” The European Polymer Journal, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 1037–1045, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. G. A. Bernabé, S. Almeida, C. A. Ribeiro, and M. S. Crespi, “Evaluation of organic molecules originated during composting process,” Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, vol. 106, no. 3, pp. 773–778, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. A. K. Bledzki and J. Gassan, “Composites reinforced with cellulose based fibres,” Progress in Polymer Science, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 221–274, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. A. Alemdar and M. Sain, “Isolation and characterization of nanofibers from agricultural residues—wheat straw and soy hulls,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 99, no. 6, pp. 1664–1671, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. N. S. H. M. Yunos, A. S. Baharuddin, K. F. M. Yunos, M. N. Naim, and H. Nishida, “Physicochemical property changes of oil palm mesocarp fibers treated with high-pressure steam,” BioResources, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 5983–5994, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. W. A. W. Razali, A. S. Baharuddin, A. TarmezeeTalib et al., “Degradation of oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) fibre during composting process using in-vessel composter,” BioResources, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 4786–4805, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. Jonoobi, A. Khazaeian, P. M. Tahir, S. S. Azry, and K. Oksman, “Characteristics of cellulose nanofibers isolated from rubberwood and empty fruit bunches of oil palm using chemo-mechanical process,” Cellulose, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 1085–1095, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. K.-N. Law, W. R. W. Daud, and A. Ghazali, “Morphological and chemical nature of fiber strands of oil palm empty-fruit-bunch (OPEFB),” BioResources, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 351–362, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. K. Nisizawa, “Mode of action of celluloses,” Journal of Fermentation Technology, vol. 51, pp. 267–304, 1973. View at Google Scholar
  39. C. M. O. Müller, J. B. Laurindo, and F. Yamashita, “Effect of cellulose fibers on the crystallinity and mechanical properties of starch-based films at different relative humidity values,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 293–299, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. D. V. Parikh, D. P. Thibodeaux, and B. Condon, “X-ray crystallinity of bleached and crosslinked cottons,” Textile Research Journal, vol. 77, no. 8, pp. 612–616, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. S. Park, J. O. Baker, M. E. Himmel, P. A. Parilla, and D. K. Johnson, “Cellulose crystallinity index: measurement techniques and their impact on interpreting cellulase performance,” Biotechnology for Biofuels, vol. 3, article 10, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. L. Segal, J. Creely, A. Martin, and C. Conrad, “An empirical method for estimating the degree of crystallinity of native cellulose using the x-ray diffractometer,” Textile Research Journal, vol. 29, no. 10, pp. 786–794, 1959. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar