Table 3: PUMP Scale item frequencies.

ItemStrongly disagree %Disagree %Neutral % Agree %Strongly agree %

When I decrease the amount of time spent using my cell phone I feel less satisfied. 62.823.05.97.50.8
I need more time using my cell phone to feel satisfied than I used to need. 64.023.87.52.90.8
When I stop using my cell phone, I get moody and irritable. 73.216.74.65.00.4
It would be very difficult, emotionally, to give up my cell phone. 39.718.413.820.96.7
The amount of time I spend using my cell phone keeps me from doing other important work. 59.420.910.98.40.4
I have thought in the past that it is not normal to spend as much time using a cell phone as I do. 57.718.811.78.81.3
I think I might be spending too much time using my cell phone. 65.715.57.98.42.5
People tell me I spend too much time using my cell phone. 70.312.66.77.92.5
When I am not using my cell phone, I am thinking about using it or planning the next time I can use it. 50.226.812.18.82.1
I feel anxious if I have not received a call or message in some time. 39.820.719.516.63.3
I have ignored the people I’m with in order to use my cell phone. 47.320.713.712.45.8
I have used my cell phone when I knew I should be doing work/schoolwork. 36.910.412.023.717.0
I have used my cell phone when I knew I should be sleeping. 43.27.510.019.120.3
When I stop using my cell phone because it is interfering with my life, I usually return to it. 56.114.220.96.32.1
I have gotten into trouble at work or school because of my cell phone use. 59.110.38.315.76.6
At times, I find myself using my cell phone instead of spending time with people who are important to me and want to spend time with me. 59.025.57.96.31.3
I have used my cell phone when I knew it was dangerous to do so. 39.414.912.925.37.1
I have almost caused an accident because of my cell phone use. 47.917.814.912.47.0
My cell phone use has caused me problems in a relationship. 74.011.25.08.31.7
I have continued to use my cell phone even when someone asked me to stop. 67.211.610.07.53.7