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Journal of Addiction
Volume 2016, Article ID 6793907, 11 pages
Research Article

Dually Diagnosed Patients with Arrests for Violent and Nonviolent Offenses: Two-Year Treatment Outcomes

1Center for Innovation to Implementation (Ci2i), VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
2Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
3Department of Psychology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA
4Palo Alto University, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA

Received 6 November 2015; Accepted 23 February 2016

Academic Editor: Gallus Bischof

Copyright © 2016 Christine Timko et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The purpose of this study was to examine the history of arrests among dually diagnosed patients entering treatment, compare groups with different histories on use of treatment and mutual-help groups and functioning, at intake to treatment and six-month, one-year, and two-year follow-ups, and examine correlates and predictors of legal functioning at the study endpoint. At treatment intake, 9.2% of patients had no arrest history, 56.3% had been arrested for nonviolent offenses only, and 34.5% had been arrested for violent offenses. At baseline, the violent group had used the most outpatient psychiatric treatment and reported poorer functioning (psychiatric, alcohol, drug, employment, and family/social). Both arrest groups had used more inpatient/residential treatment and had more mutual-help group participation than the no-arrest group. The arrest groups had higher likelihood of substance use disorder treatment or mutual-help group participation at follow-ups. Generally, all groups were comparable on functioning at follow-ups (with baseline functioning controlled). With baseline arrest status controlled, earlier predictors of more severe legal problems at the two-year follow-up were more severe psychological, family/social, and drug problems. Findings suggest that dually diagnosed patients with a history of arrests for violent offenses may achieve comparable treatment outcomes to those of patients with milder criminal histories.