Table of Contents
Journal of Artificial Evolution and Applications
Volume 2008, Article ID 728929, 10 pages
Review Article

Particle Swarm Optimization for Antenna Designs in Engineering Electromagnetics

Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1594, USA

Received 17 July 2007; Accepted 17 December 2007

Academic Editor: Riccardo Poli

Copyright © 2008 Nanbo Jin and Yahya Rahmat-Samii. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This paper presents recent advances in applying particle swarm optimization (PSO) to antenna designs in engineering electromagnetics. By linking the PSO kernel with external electromagnetic (EM) analyzers, the algorithm has the flexibility to handle both real and binary variables, as well as multiobjective problems with more than one optimization goal. Three examples, including the designs of a dual-band patch antenna, an artificial ground plane of a surface wave antenna, and an aperiodic antenna array, are presented. Both simulation and measurement results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of applying the swarm intelligence to design antennas with desired frequency response and radiation characteristics for practical EM applications.