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Journal of Applied Mathematics
Volume 2012, Article ID 765270, 17 pages
Research Article

Simulating Evacuations with Obstacles Using a Modified Dynamic Cellular Automata Model

1Institut Matematik Kejuruteraan, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 02000 Kuala Perlis, Perlis, Malaysia
2School of Mechatronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Campus Pauh Putra, 02600 Arau, Perlis, Malaysia

Received 7 November 2011; Accepted 1 April 2012

Academic Editor: Zhilong L. Huang

Copyright © 2012 Lim Eng Aik and Tan Wee Choon. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A modified dynamic cellular automata model is proposed to simulate the evacuation of occupants from a room with obstacles. The model takes into account some factors that play an important role in an evacuation process, such as human emotions and crowd density around the exits. It also incorporates people’s ability to select a less congested exit route, a factor that is rarely investigated. The simulation and experimental results show that modifications to the exits provide reasonable improvement to evacuation time, after taking into account the fact that people will tend to select exit routes based on the distance to the exits and the crowd density around the exits. In addition, the model is applied to simulations of classroom and restaurant evacuation. Results obtained with the proposed model are compared with those of several existing models. The outcome of the comparison demonstrates that it performs better than existing models.