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Journal of Applied Mathematics
Volume 2013, Article ID 986985, 11 pages
Research Article

A Rough Penalty Genetic Algorithm for Multicast Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Department of Information Management, Chung Yuan Christian University, Jhongli City 32023, Taiwan

Received 26 April 2013; Accepted 13 July 2013

Academic Editor: Anyi Chen

Copyright © 2013 Chih-Hao Lin and Chia-Chun Chuang. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Multicast routing is an effective way to transmit messages to multiple hosts in a network. However, it is vulnerable to intermittent connectivity property in mobile ad hoc network (MANET) especially for multimedia applications, which have some quality of service (QoS) requirements. The goal of QoS provisioning is to well organize network resources to satisfy the QoS requirement and achieve good network delivery services. However, there remains a challenge to provide QoS solutions and maintain end-to-end QoS with user mobility. In this paper, a novel penalty adjustment method based on the rough set theory is proposed to deal with path-delay constraints for multicast routing problems in MANETs. We formulate the problem as a constrained optimization problem, where the objective function is to minimize the total cost of the multicast tree subject to QoS constraints. The RPGA is evaluated on three multicast scenarios and compared with two state-of-the-art methods in terms of cost, success rate, and time complexity. The performance analyses show that this approach is a self-adaptive method for penalty adjustment. Remarkably, the method can address a variety of constrained multicast routing problems even though the initial routes do not satisfy all QoS requirements.