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Journal of Applied Mathematics
Volume 2014, Article ID 879232, 14 pages
Research Article

Performance of a Nonlinear Real-Time Optimal Control System for HEVs/PHEVs during Car Following

School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000, China

Received 20 March 2014; Accepted 23 May 2014; Published 19 June 2014

Academic Editor: Yuxin Zhao

Copyright © 2014 Kaijiang Yu and Junqi Yang. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This paper presents a real-time optimal control approach for the energy management problem of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) with slope information during car following. The new features of this study are as follows. First, the proposed method can optimize the engine operating points and the driving profile simultaneously. Second, the proposed method gives the freedom of vehicle spacing between the preceding vehicle and the host vehicle. Third, using the HEV/PHEV property, the desired battery state of charge is designed according to the road slopes for better recuperation of free braking energy. Fourth, all of the vehicle operating modes engine charge, electric vehicle, motor assist and electric continuously variable transmission, and regenerative braking, can be realized using the proposed real-time optimal control approach. Computer simulation results are shown among the nonlinear real-time optimal control approach and the ADVISOR rule-based approach. The conclusion is that the nonlinear real-time optimal control approach is effective for the energy management problem of the HEV/PHEV system during car following.