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Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 201873, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/201873
Research Article

The Feasibility of Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics for Untargeted Detection of Protein Adulteration in Yogurt: Removing Unwanted Variations in Pure Yogurt

1Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Biometrology and Inspection & Quarantine, College of Life Sciences, China Jiliang University, Xueyuan Street, Xiasha Higher Education District, Hangzhou 310018, China
2Department of Chemistry and Life Science, Chuxiong Normal University, Luchengnan Road, Chuxiong 675000, China

Received 26 March 2013; Accepted 1 June 2013

Academic Editor: Antony C. Calokerinos

Copyright © 2013 Lu Xu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Untargeted detection of protein adulteration in Chinese yogurt was performed using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and chemometrics class modelling techniques. sixty yogurt samples were prepared with pure and fresh milk from local market, and 197 adulterated yogurt samples were prepared by blending the pure yogurt objects with different levels of edible gelatin, industrial gelatin, and soy protein powder, which have been frequently used for yogurt adulteration. A recently proposed one-class partial least squares (OCPLS) model was used to model the NIR spectra of pure yogurt objects and analyze those of future objects. To improve the raw spectra, orthogonal projection (OP) of raw spectra onto the spectrum of pure water and standard normal variate (SNV) transformation were used to remove unwanted spectral variations. The best model was obtained with OP preprocessing with sensitivity of 0.900 and specificity of 0.949. Moreover, adulterations of yogurt with 1% (w/w) edible gelatin, 2% (w/w) industrial gelatin, and 2% (w/w) soy protein powder can be safely detected by the proposed method. This study demonstrates the potential of combining NIR spectroscopy and OCPLS as an untargeted detection tool for protein adulteration in yogurt.