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Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Volume 2015, Article ID 626458, 7 pages
Research Article

Voltammetric Determination of Codeine on Glassy Carbon Electrode Modified with Nafion/MWCNTs

Faculty of Material Science and Ceramics, AGH University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza 30, 30059 Cracow, Poland

Received 10 November 2014; Revised 13 January 2015; Accepted 13 January 2015

Academic Editor: Sibel A. Ozkan

Copyright © 2015 Robert Piech et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A glassy carbon electrode modified with a Nafion/MWCNTs composite is shown to enable the determination of codeine using differential pulse voltammetry in phosphate buffer of pH 3.0. At a preconcentration time of 15 s, the calibration graph is linear in the 0.5 µM (0.15 mg·L−1) to 15 µM (4.5 mg·L−1) concentration range with a correlation coefficient of 0.998. The detection limit at a preconcentration time of 120 s is as low as 4.5 μg·L−1. The repeatability of the method at a 0.6 μg·L−1 concentration level, expressed as the RSD, is 3.7% (for ). The method was successfully applied and validated by analyzing codeine in drug, human plasma, and urine samples.