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Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Volume 2016, Article ID 5976324, 12 pages
Research Article

Determination of Levetiracetam in Human Plasma by Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Followed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, 14040-903 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil
2Department of Exact and Earth Sciences, Institute of Environmental, Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of São Paulo, 09972-270 Diadema, SP, Brazil
3Departament of Chemistry, Faculty of Philosophy, Sciences and Letters of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, 14040-901 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil
4Department of Clinical Analysis, Toxicology and Food Science, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, 14040-903 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil

Received 26 June 2016; Accepted 1 September 2016

Academic Editor: Antonio V. Herrera-Herrera

Copyright © 2016 Greyce Kelly Steinhorst Alcantara et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Levetiracetam (LEV) is an antiepileptic drug that is clinically effective in generalized and partial epilepsy syndromes. The use of this drug has been increasing in clinical practice and intra- or -interindividual variability has been exhibited for special population. For this reason, bioanalytical methods are required for drug monitoring in biological matrices. So this work presents a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (DLLME-GC-MS) for LEV quantification in human plasma. However, due to the matrix complexity a previous purification step is required. Unlike other pretreatment techniques presented in the literature, for the first time, a procedure employing ultrafiltration tubes Amicon® (10 kDa porous size) without organic solvent consumption was developed. GC-MS analyses were carried out using a linear temperature program, capillary fused silica column, and helium as the carrier gas. DLLME optimized parameters were type and volume of extraction and dispersing solvents, salt addition, and vortex agitation time. Under chosen parameters (extraction solvent: chloroform, 130 μL; dispersing solvent: isopropyl alcohol, 400 μL; no salt addition and no vortex agitation time), the method was completely validated and all parameters were in agreement with the literature recommendations. LEV was quantified in patient’s plasma sample using less than 550 μL of organic solvent.