Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 7846742, 8 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/7846742
Research Article

Chromatographic Characterization and Method Development for Determination of Levetiracetam in Saliva: Application to Correlation with Plasma Levels

1School of Pharmacy, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan
2Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Applied Sciences Private University, Amman, Jordan
3Faculty of Medicine, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan

Correspondence should be addressed to Imad I. Hamdan; oj.ude.uj@nadmah.i

Received 24 April 2017; Revised 15 June 2017; Accepted 2 July 2017; Published 7 August 2017

Academic Editor: Verónica Pino

Copyright © 2017 Imad I. Hamdan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. Petruševska, S. Berglez, I. Krisch et al., “Biowaiver monographs for immediate release solid oral dosage forms: levetiracetam,” Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 104, no. 9, pp. 2676–2687, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. P. N. Patsalos, “Clinical pharmacokinetics of levetiracetam,” Clinical Pharmacokinetics, vol. 43, no. 11, pp. 707–724, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. R. Grünewald, “Levetiracetam in the treatment of idiopathic generalized epilepsies,” Epilepsia, vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 154–160, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. P. N. Patsalos, “Pharmacokinetic profile of levetiracetam: toward ideal characteristics,” Pharmacology & Therapeutics, vol. 85, no. 2, pp. 77–85, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. A. French, A. M. Kanner, J. Bautista et al., “Efficacy and tolerability of the new antiepileptic drugs, II: treatment of refractory epilepsy: report of the TTA and QSS subcommittees of the American Academy of Neurology and the American Epilepsy Society,” Epilepsia, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 410–423, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. E. Perucca, B. E. Gidal, and E. Baltès, “Effects of antiepileptic comedication on levetiracetam pharmacokinetics: a pooled analysis of data from randomized adjunctive therapy trials,” Epilepsy Research, vol. 53, no. 1-2, pp. 47–56, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. N. Isoherranen, M. Roeder, S. Soback, B. Yagen, V. Schurig, and M. Bialer, “Enantioselective analysis of levetiracetam and its enantiomer R-α-ethyl-2-oxo-pyrrolidine acetamide using gas chromatography and ion trap mass spectrometric detection,” Journal of Chromatography B: Biomedical Sciences and Applications, vol. 745, no. 2, pp. 325–332, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. Ivanova, A. Piunti, E. Marziali, N. Komarova, M. A. Raggi, and E. Kenndler, “Microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography applied for separation of levetiracetam from other antiepileptic drugs in polypharmacy,” Electrophoresis, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 992–998, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. E. Oláh, G. Bacsói, J. Fekete, and V. K. Sharma, “Determination of ng/mL levetiracetam using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–photodiode absorbance,” Journal of Chromatographic Science, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 253–258, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. B. Mohammadi, M. Majnooni, N. Afnanzade, R. Jalili, and G. Bahrami, “Simple and rapid ultra high performance liquid chromatographic (UHPLC) method for the determination of levetiracetam in human serum: application to a bioequivalence study,” African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 6, no. 27, pp. 2017–2022, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. L.-L. Yeap and Y.-L. Lo, “Rapid and simultaneous quantification of levetiracetam and its carboxylic metabolite in human plasma by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry,” PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 11, Article ID e111544, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. T. Guo, L. M. Oswald, D. R. Mendu, and S. J. Soldin, “Determination of levetiracetam in human plasma/serum/saliva by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry,” Clinica Chimica Acta, vol. 375, no. 1-2, pp. 115–118, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. D. S. Jain, G. Subbaiah, M. Sanyal, U. Pal, and P. S. Shrivastav, “Determination of levetiracetam in human plasma by liquid chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry and its application to bioequivalence studies,” Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, vol. 20, no. 17, pp. 2539–2547, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. Contin, S. Mohamed, F. Albani, R. Riva, and A. Baruzzi, “Simple and validated HPLC-UV analysis of levetiracetam in deproteinized plasma of patients with epilepsy,” Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences, vol. 873, no. 1, pp. 129–132, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. F. Lancelin, E. Franchon, L. Kraoul et al., “Therapeutic drug monitoring of levetiracetam by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array ultraviolet detection: Preliminary observations on correlation between plasma concentration and clinical response in patients with refractory epilepsy,” Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 576–583, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. M. Juenke, P. I. Brown, F. M. Urry, and G. A. McMillin, “Drug monitoring and toxicology: a procedure for the monitoring of levetiracetam and zonisamide by HPLC-UV,” Journal of Analytical Toxicology, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 27–30, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. M. Lobenhoffer and B. S. M. Boger, “Determination of levetiracetam in human plasma with minimal sample pretreatment,” Journal of Chromatography B, vol. 819, no. 1, pp. 197–200, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. V. Pucci, F. Bugamelli, R. Mandrioli, A. Ferranti, E. Kenndler, and M. A. Raggi, “High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of levetiracetam in human plasma: comparison of different sample clean-up procedures,” Biomedical Chromatography, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 37–44, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. N. Ratnaraj, H. C. Doheny, and P. N. Patsalos, “A micromethod for the determination of the new antiepileptic drug levetiracetam (ucb LO59) in serum or plasma by high performance liquid chromatography,” Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 154–157, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. T. A. C. Vermeij and P. M. Edelbroek, “High-performance liquid chromatographic and megabore gas-liquid chromatographic determination of levetiracetam (ucb L059) in human serum after solid-phase extraction,” Journal of Chromatography B: Biomedical Applications, vol. 662, no. 1, pp. 134–139, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. S. A. Grim, M. Ryan, M. V. Miles et al., “Correlation of levetiracetam concentrations between serum and saliva,” Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 61–66, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. O. Mecarelli, P. L. Voti, S. Pro et al., “Saliva and serum levetiracetam concentrations in patients with epilepsy,” Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 313–318, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. F. A. Siddiqui, N. Sher, N. Shafi et al., “Development of new method for simultaneous analysis of piracetam and levetiracetam in pharmaceuticals and biological fluids: application in stability studies,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2014, Article ID 758283, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. F. P. Van der Maeden, P. T. van Rens, F. A. Buytenhuys, and E. Buurman, “Quantitative analysis of d-tubocurarine chloride in curare by column liquid chromatography,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 142, no. C, pp. 715–723, 1977. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. L. R. Snyder, J. J. Kirkland, and J. L. Glash, Practical HPLC Method Development, John Willey & Sons, Inc., New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 1997.
  26. A. A. Asadi-Pooya, “Drug compliance of children and adolescents with epilepsy,” Seizure, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 393–395, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus