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Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Volume 2018 (2018), Article ID 4506754, 10 pages
Research Article

Multiresidue Method for Quantification of Sulfonamides and Trimethoprim in Tilapia Fillet by Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Using QuEChERS for Sample Preparation

1Department of Food Science, School of Food Engineering, University of Campinas, Rua Monteiro Lobato 80, 13083-862 Campinas, SP, Brazil
2Embrapa Meio Ambiente, P.O. Box 69, 13820-000 Jaguariúna, SP, Brazil

Correspondence should be addressed to Felix G. R. Reyes

Received 25 August 2017; Revised 14 December 2017; Accepted 31 December 2017; Published 1 March 2018

Academic Editor: Gauthier Eppe

Copyright © 2018 Kátia S. D. Nunes et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A multiresidue method for detecting and quantifying sulfonamides (sulfapyridine, sulfamerazine, sulfathiazole, sulfamethazine, sulfadimethoxine, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfamethoxypyridazine) and trimethoprim in tilapia fillet (Oreochromis niloticus) using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was developed and validated. The sample preparation was optimized using the QuEChERS approach. The chromatographic separation was performed using a C18 column and 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile as the mobile phase in the isocratic elution mode. Method validation was performed based on the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and Brazilian guideline. The validation parameters evaluated were linearity (r ≥ 0.99); limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ), 1 ng·g−1 and 5 ng·g−1, respectively; intraday and interdays precision (CV lower than 19.4%). The decision limit (CCα 102.6–120.0 ng·g−1 and 70 ng·g−1 for sulfonamides and trimethoprim, respectively) and detection capability (CCβ 111.7–140.1 ng·g−1 and 89.9 ng·g−1 for sulfonamides and trimethoprim, respectively) were determined. Analyses of tilapia fillet samples from fish exposed to sulfamethazine through feed (incurred samples) were conducted in order to evaluate the method. This new method was demonstrated to be fast, sensitive, and suitable for monitoring sulfonamides and trimethoprim in tilapia fillet in health surveillance programs, as well as to be used in pharmacokinetics and residue depletion studies.