Table of Contents
Journal of Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics
Volume 2012, Article ID 854693, 12 pages
Research Article

Phase-Conjugate-State Pairs in Entangled States

Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan

Received 26 April 2012; Accepted 4 September 2012

Academic Editor: Alan Migdall

Copyright © 2012 Ryo Namiki. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


We consider the probability that a bipartite quantum state contains phase-conjugate-state (PCS) pairs and/or identical-state pairs as signatures of quantum entanglement. While the fraction of the PCS pairs directly indicates the property of a maximally entangled state, the fraction of the identical-state pairs negatively determines antisymmetric entangled states such as singlet states. We also consider the physical limits of these probabilities. This imposes fundamental restrictions on the pair appearance of the states with respect to the local access of the physical system. For continuous-variable system, we investigate similar relations by employing the pairs of phase-conjugate coherent states. We also address the role of the PCS pairs for quantum teleportation in both discrete-variable and continuous-variable systems.