Table of Contents
Journal of Anesthesiology
Volume 2015, Article ID 952302, 7 pages
Research Article

Singapore General Hospital Experience on Ethnicity and the Incidence of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting after Elective Orthopaedic Surgeries

1Department of Anaesthesiology, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, Singapore 169608
2NUHS Anaesthesia, National University Hospital, 5 Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119074
3Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 21 Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119077
4Duke-NUS Medical School, 8 College Road, Singapore 169857

Received 4 August 2015; Revised 24 November 2015; Accepted 26 November 2015

Academic Editor: Robert J. Brosnan

Copyright © 2015 Xin Yu Adeline Leong et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Introduction. We explored how ethnicity affects the risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and established the correlation of suggested risk factors of PONV in the multiethnic population of Singapore. Methods. 785 patients who underwent orthopaedic surgery were recruited. These comprised 619 Chinese (78.9%), 76 Malay (9.7%), 68 Indian (8.7%), and 22 other (2.8%) cases. The presence of possible risk factors of PONV and nausea and/or vomiting within 24 h after surgery was studied. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Results. The incidence of PONV was 33.2% (261 patients). There was no statistically significant difference of PONV incidence between Chinese, Malay, and Indian cases (34.6% versus 34.2% versus 29.4%, ). Indian females younger than 50 years were found to have a higher incidence of vomiting (). The significant risk factors for this population include females, use of nitrous oxide, and a history of PONV. Conclusion. In the groups studied, ethnicity is not a significant risk factor for PONV except for young Indian females who have a higher risk of postoperative vomiting. We suggest the selective usage of antiemetic for young Indian females as prophylaxis and avoiding nitrous oxide use in high-risk patients.