Table of Contents
Journal of Animals
Volume 2014, Article ID 923170, 8 pages
Research Article

Effect of Piroxicam and/or Ascorbic Acid on Postoperative Pain in Orchidectomised Goats

Department of Surgery and Radiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria 810006, Nigeria

Received 16 January 2014; Revised 24 June 2014; Accepted 21 August 2014; Published 10 September 2014

Academic Editor: Yoshihiro Ohmiya

Copyright © 2014 Richard Oluchukwu Okafor et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The study evaluates effects of varied doses of ascorbic acid and piroxicam on behavioural signs of pain in orchidectomised Savannah Brown goats during their postsurgical pain management. The goats were divided into 6 groups of 3 goats each. Orchidectomy was performed on all animals under sedation with xylazine and linear infiltration with lignocaine. After surgery, varied doses of piroxicam (IM) and ascorbic acid (IV) were administered to the goats: Group A = piroxicam, 5 mg/kg + ascorbic acid, 100 mg/kg; Group B = piroxicam, 5 mg/kg + ascorbic acid, 200 mg/kg; Group C = piroxicam, 10 mg/kg + ascorbic acid, 100 mg/kg; Group D = piroxicam, 5 mg/kg; Group E: ascorbic acid, 100 mg/kg together with antibiotics, procaine penicillin, 20,000 IU/kg + streptomycin, 10 mg/kg (IM); and Group F (control) received only the antibiotics. After surgery, pain intensity was determined in each goat by numerical rating scale. Vocalisation, teeth grinding, rapid and shallow breathing, tail wagging, occasionally bleating, neck extension, and dorsal lip curling were recorded at varying degrees across the experimental groups. The goats in the control group showed the highest degree of behavioural signs of pain. It is concluded that treatment with a combination of piroxicam and ascorbic acid ameliorated pain more than either of the agents in orchidectomised Savannah Brown goats.