Journal of Anthropology / 2014 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

An Ethnographic Study of Diabetes: Implications for the Application of Patient Centred Care in Cameroon

Table 1

Matrix of methods used in participant observation during 25 months of fieldwork.

Method of data collection Brief description of methodNumber/episodes and participants

Daily observationsA research method, in which the investigator systematically watches, listens to, and records the phenomenon of interest. A research method in which the investigator takes part in the social phenomenon of interest by participating with a group and observing the interactions between them and between the researcher and subjects to achieve a greater understanding. Used in ethnographic approaches. This entails observing clinical encounters and activities of groups and individuals and at times participating actively.Numerous observations of 20 patients within their families and community

Clinic observationsObserving and participating in clinical encounters and other activities going on in clinics.Over clinical encounters in four clinics with 200 patients in more than 300 encounters.

Case studiesA research method which focuses on the characteristics, circumstances, and complexity of a single case, or a small number of cases, often using multiple methods. The case is viewed as being valued in its own right and whilst findings can raise awareness of general issues, the aim is not to generalise the findings to other cases. Heritage & Atkinson (1984)18

BiographiesInformation provided by an individual or groups of people, tracing their life events and how they coped with diabetes18

Fieldwork conversationsThe central goal of was the description and explication of the competence that ordinary speakers use and rely on in participating in intelligible, social interaction. At its most basic, the objective was one describing the procedures by which fieldwork conversations amongst participants produce knowledge of processes that build around diabetes care.Daily as situations permitted

In-depth interviewsThe research method involved asking questions from an interview guide and tape-recording participants’ replies. This was recorded by the researcher writing down answers verbatim and summarizing the findings allowing data analysis to be conducted later34

Focus group discussions (FGD)A qualitative technique developed by social and market researchers in which 6–12 individuals are brought together and interactively give their views and impressions upon a specified topic. (Morgan 1992). These were used to evaluate attitudes towards the topic. Focus groups conducted in this study were usually homogeneous with members being generally of the same age, gender, and status to encourage participation 27

Documentary evidenceUsing documents to get information to complement what other methods cannot provide. Clinical and handheld records of patients were used in this fieldwork. Observation of clinical records and their use at the same time as observation of clinical encounters (>200)

We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions.