Table 1: Anthropometric measurements/landmarks and their associated definitions taken manually of each of the male participants.

MeasurementLandmarksDefinition

Statureb-vThe distance between the floor (b) and the highest point on the top of the skull when the head is held in Frankfurt horizontal (v)
Tragion heightb-tThe distance between the floor (b) and the superior point on the tragus of the ear (t)
Acromiale heightb-aThe distance between the floor (b) and the acromiale (a), the point at the superior and lateral borders of the acromion process
Suprasternale heightb-sstThe distance between the floor (b) and the suprasternale (sst), the lowest point in the suprasternal notch in the midsagittal plane
Iliocristale heightb-icThe distance between the floor (b) and the iliocristale (ic), the highest and the most lateral palpable point of the iliac crest of the pelvis
Trochanterion heightb-troThe distance between the floor (b) and the trochanterion (tro), the superior point of the greater trochanter of the femur
Symphyseal heightb-syThe distance between the floor (b) and the symphysion (sy), the point on the superior margin of the pubic symphysis in the midsagittal plane
Tibiale heightb-tiThe distance between the floor (b) and the tibiale laterale (ti), the superior point on the lateral condyle of the tibia
Biacromial widtha-aThe distance between the left and right acromiale landmarks
Bi-iliocristal widthic-icThe distance between the right and left iliocristale landmarks
Bizygomatic width zy-zyThe maximum horizontal breadth between the zygomatic arches
Metopion-nasion lengthm-nThe distance between the metopion (m), the intersection between median sagittal plane and horizontal line between left and right frontal eminences and nasion (n), the point where the midsagittal plane crosses the junction between the frontal and nasal bones, the deepest root of the nose
Metopion-subnasale lengthm-snThe distance between the metopion (m), the intersection between median sagittal plane and horizontal line between left and right frontal eminences and subnasale (sn), the point where the nasal septum meets the philtrum
Metopion-stomion lengthm-stoThe distance between the metopion (m), the intersection between median sagittal plane and horizontal line between left and right frontal eminences and stomion (sto), the midpoint of the occlusal line between the lips
Metopion-gnathion lengthm-gnThe distance between the metopion (m), the intersection between median sagittal plane and horizontal line between left and right frontal eminences and gnathion (gn), the most inferior point on the body of the mandible in the midsagittal plane