Table of Contents
Journal of Anthropology
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 6218659, 6 pages
Research Article

Reliability and Accuracy of Angular Measurements on Laser Scanning Created 3D Models of Dry Skulls

1Institute of Experimental Morphology, Pathology and Anthropology with Museum, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria
2Institute of Information and Communication Technologies, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria
3Institute of Mathematics and Informatics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria

Received 30 April 2016; Accepted 4 August 2016

Academic Editor: Santos Alonso

Copyright © 2016 Diana Toneva et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The aim of the study was to assess the accuracy and reliability of skull angles measured on 3D models created by laser scanning. Five skulls were measured through both conventional and digital measuring methods. The 3D models were created using a hand-held laser scanner Creaform VIUscan. Seven angular characteristics were measured three times by two observers. The intra- and interobserver reliability were assessed using intraclass correlation coefficient. The differences between the digital and direct measurements were assessed using the measurement and relative errors. The intraclass correlation coefficients for digitally taken angles indicated almost perfect intra- and interobserver reliability, except for the alveolar profile angle showing moderate interobserver agreement. The overall measurement error based on the differences between digitally and directly measured angles was 0.61° and the relative error was 0.68%.