Table of Contents
Journal of Anthropology
Volume 2017, Article ID 9129801, 7 pages
Research Article

Estimating Sex of Modern Greeks Based on the Foramen Magnum Region

Department of Animal and Human Physiology, Faculty of Biology, School of Sciences, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, 157 81 Athens, Greece

Correspondence should be addressed to Maria-Eleni Chovalopoulou; rg.aou.loib@vohcaneliram

Received 2 March 2017; Revised 28 May 2017; Accepted 3 July 2017; Published 31 July 2017

Academic Editor: Hugo Cardoso

Copyright © 2017 Maria-Eleni Chovalopoulou and Andreas Bertsatos. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Sex determination is one of the principal aims when examining human skeletal remains. One method for sex determination is based on metric criteria using discriminant functions. However, discriminant function sexing formulas are population-specific. In the present study, we determined the use of the foramen magnum as well as the occipital condyles for sex determination on adults from a modern Greek population. Seven parameters were examined (4 obtained from the foramen magnum; 3 obtained from the occipital condyles) and the sample consisted of 154 adult crania (77 males and 77 females). The results indicate that the foramen magnum region exhibits sexual dimorphism and the mean values for all parameters were higher in males than females. In comparison, the occipital condyles provide a higher determination of the correct sex than the foramen magnum. The combination of the occipital condyle variables allowed for the development of discriminant functions that predicted the correct sex in 74% of all cases. Finally, although other anatomical regions can discriminate the sexes with higher accuracy, the functions developed in this study could be cautiously used in cases of fragmented crania.