Table 1: Anatomical landmarks used for linear facial measurements.

S/NLandmarksAbbr.Anatomical description

1AlarAlThis is the most lateral point of the nasal wings
2CheilionChThis is the outer most lateral point of the of the mouth
3EndocanthionEnThis is the inner corner of the eye fissure at the meeting points of eyelids
4ExocanthionExIt is the outer corner of the eye fissure where the eyelids meet
5GlabellaGThis is a most prominent point in the median sagittal plane between the supraorbital ridges
6GnathionGnIt is the lowest point on the lower border of the chin, in the midline
7NasionNThis is the midpoint of the nasofrontal suture
8SubnasaleSnIt is the junction between the lower border of the nasal septum and the cutaneous portion of the upper lip, in the midline
9TrichionTrThis a midpoint of the hairline at the top of forehead
10VertexVThis is the highest point on the head with the head in the Frankfort horizontal plane
11ZygomaZyThis is the most lateral point on the zygomatic arch