Journal of Anthropology The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Shifting from Village-Based Networks to Locally Generated Networks: Undocumented Mexican Agricultural Workers Who Use/Used Hard Drugs Tue, 28 Feb 2017 06:37:51 +0000 Hardships that face transmigrants working in agriculture include the potential for drug use. Reliant on village-based networks that facilitate border crossing and developing a plan for a destination within this country, transmigrants who try new drugs/alcohol and/or continue on accustomed drugs/alcohol are facilitated in these endeavors through locally generated networks as alternative forms of access and support. Seven cases of undocumented men from Mexico are reviewed to show how use of illicit drugs is minimally affected by economic success and time in the United States, or village-based networks that first facilitated entry into this country. Prior conditions, especially childhood difficulties and search for socioeconomic autonomy, precipitate new and/or continuing drug use within the United States on this side of the border, where both forms of drug use are facilitated by locally generated networks. Keith V. Bletzer Copyright © 2017 Keith V. Bletzer. All rights reserved. The Earliest Maya Farmers of Peten: New Evidence from Buenavista-Nuevo San José, Central Peten Lakes Region, Guatemala Wed, 15 Feb 2017 12:21:35 +0000 The origins and cultural affiliations of the first sedentary agricultural and pottery-producing communities in the southern Maya lowlands remain hotly debated. Here, we describe the discovery of a new early farming settlement at the small site of Buenavista-Nuevo San José on Lake Peten Itza in northern Guatemala. Evidence for a pre-Mamom occupation (1000–700 BC) at this site was found in the deepest fill layers overlying bedrock, including pottery diagnostic of this time period and the remains of a post-in-bedrock dwelling. Because the evidence for this early settlement is from secondary contexts and because four radiocarbon dates cover a broad chronological range, the best evidence for the pre-Mamom occupation consists of the ceramics recovered in the excavations. The closest links of the pre-Mamom pottery at Buenavista-Nuevo San José are with the Eb complex at Tikal and the Cunil complex of Cahal Pech, Belize, suggesting strong interactions between these early groups. The discovery of pre-Mamom pottery at Buenavista also suggests that the early farmers were more widespread than previously suggested. Furthermore, the presence of Olmecoid symbols incised on the pre-Mamom pottery at Buenavista-Nuevo San José indicates that these early communities were immersed in broad pan-Mesoamerican spheres of interaction. Jeanette E. Castellanos and Antonia E. Foias Copyright © 2017 Jeanette E. Castellanos and Antonia E. Foias. All rights reserved. From Rural to Urban: Archaeological Research in the Periphery of Huari, Ayacucho Valley, Peru Mon, 13 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 For hundreds upon hundreds of years, humans lived in small settlements where most individuals, if not all, were linked by kinship ties. Many of these villages were occupied for generations and thus their occupants had a strong connection to the place. The villages were politically and economically autonomous, yet they were connected with adjacent villages by means of barter and intermarriage. Within a relatively short period of time, centuries-long occupied small villages were left vacant and replaced by fewer but much larger settlements identified as cities. In contrast to the rural based villages, cities began to house much larger numbers of residents, who not only were unfamiliar with each other but also were mainly concerned with their own well-being. Recent archaeological research carried out in the immediate periphery of Huari provides crucial information that indicates that the growth of Huari paralleled the abandonment of rural villages apparently in the midst of increasing conflict. The rural settlement of Huaqanmarka was occupied for several centuries, yet it was abandoned within a short period of time simultaneously with the desertion of other adjacent settlements. Lidio M. Valdez and J. Ernesto Valdez Copyright © 2017 Lidio M. Valdez and J. Ernesto Valdez. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Facial Proportions and Their Association with Thumbprint Patterns among Hausa Ethnic Group Thu, 19 Jan 2017 09:11:15 +0000 Background. Evolutionary forces such as founder effect resulted in reproductive isolation and reduced genetic diversity may have led to ethnic variation in the facial appearance and other features like fingerprints pattern. Aim. To determine the pattern of facial proportion based on neoclassical facial canon. The associations between facial proportions and thumbprint patterns were also investigated. Subject and Methods. A total of 534 subjects of 18–25 years of age participated. Direct sensing and photographs methods were used to determine fingerprint and facial features, respectively. Fisher’s Exact test was used to test for association between variables. Results. It was observed that in both males and females there was no (0%) occurrence of classical canon of facial proportion. There was also no association between sex and facial proportions. A significant association was found in between thumbprint patterns and vertical class III neoclassical facial proportion only when the frequency of both left and right thumbprint patterns was considered a single entity. There is no significant association between the thumbprint patterns of the right and left thumbs with vertical horizontal facial proportions in male and female participants. It was observed that right and left thumbs have more tendency of significance with facial proportion in males and females, respectively. Conclusion. Fingerprint pattern and its associated features may be controlled by a different mechanism such that the two may correlate differently with other features as the case may be with facial features. Lawan Hassan Adamu, Samuel Adeniyi Ojo, Barnabas Danborno, Sunday Samuel Adebisi, and Magaji Garba Taura Copyright © 2017 Lawan Hassan Adamu et al. All rights reserved. Sociocultural Determinants to Adoption of Safe Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Practices in Nyakach, Kisumu County, Kenya: A Descriptive Qualitative Study Thu, 08 Dec 2016 12:56:14 +0000 Provision of safe water, adequate sanitation, and hygiene has been lauded as one way of preventing diarrheal infections and improving health especially in developing countries. However, lack of safe water, inadequate sanitation, and poor hygiene practices in most parts of rural Kenya have posed a challenge that exposes the populace to diarrhea cases and possible deaths. In this regard, many nongovernmental organizations and governmental agencies have tried to provide water, sanitation, and hygiene services with poor results. This study was conducted using qualitative research methods in Central Nyakach in Kisumu County, Kenya. The methods were focus group discussions (FGD), key informant interviews (KII), and observation of homesteads. The data were then analyzed thematically. Findings revealed that water issues are gendered and its use is socially and culturally categorized. Water storage is affected by traditions such as use of a clay pot, while sanitation and hygiene issues are ritualized and bound by taboos. Latrines are majorly constructed by men and sharing the same with in-laws and older children is prohibited. Children faeces are thrown out in the open fields as a means of disposal and hand washing with soap is nonexistent, since it is believed that doing so would make a person lose the ability to rear livestock. The implications of these findings are that some of these sociocultural practices have a profound effect on health of the population. This affects health care delivery through high incidence rates of disease, encourages “unhealthy” environments through open defecation and pollution, and negates the government’s commitment to national and international policies on universal health care provision. Job Wasonga, Mark Okowa, and Felix Kioli Copyright © 2016 Job Wasonga et al. All rights reserved. Biological and Social Determinants of Fertility Behaviour among the Jat Women of Haryana State, India Sun, 20 Nov 2016 13:48:21 +0000 Fertility is a way through which human beings biologically replace themselves in order to continue their existence on earth. The present paper therefore attempts to study the factors affecting fertility among the Jat women of Haryana state. A household survey was conducted in 15 villages of Palwal district in which the concentration of Jats was found to be highest and 1014 ever married women were interviewed. Age at marriage, present age, education status, family type, and preference for male child were the most important factors that affected fertility in the studied population. Age at menarche, age at first conception, occupation status, use of birth control measures, and household per capita annual income did not affect the fertility in the studied population. Ketaki Chandiok, Prakash Ranjan Mondal, Chakraverti Mahajan, and Kallur Nava Saraswathy Copyright © 2016 Ketaki Chandiok et al. All rights reserved. Maternal Body Mass Index Is Strongly Associated with Children -Scores for Height and BMI Thu, 03 Nov 2016 09:34:49 +0000 Introduction. Undernutrition continues to be a major public health problem throughout the developing world, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia including India. Limited studies suggest associations between maternal body mass index (BMI) and child nutritional status. The present study aims to determine the relationship between maternal BMI and children nutritional status. Methods. The study was conducted among 246 mothers who had given birth to single children () and belonged to the Proto-Australoid population of North Bengal, India. The anthropometric measurements of height and weight were recorded following standard procedures. Overall body composition was evaluated using BMI. Result. The results showed that overall mean BMI among mothers was  kg/m2, while those among boys and girls were  kg/m2 and  kg/m2 (), respectively. The BMI of mothers were significantly and highly correlated with HAZ (0.709) and BMIZ (0.748) () of children. These are indicative of a strong genetic component between maternal and child anthropometry. Conclusion. The results indicate significant associations between mothers’ and children’s nutritional status. Assessments of body composition and nutritional status using BMI, especially among mothers and their children, are recommended. Pushpa Lata Tigga and Jaydip Sen Copyright © 2016 Pushpa Lata Tigga and Jaydip Sen. All rights reserved. Reliability and Accuracy of Angular Measurements on Laser Scanning Created 3D Models of Dry Skulls Tue, 30 Aug 2016 11:50:02 +0000 The aim of the study was to assess the accuracy and reliability of skull angles measured on 3D models created by laser scanning. Five skulls were measured through both conventional and digital measuring methods. The 3D models were created using a hand-held laser scanner Creaform VIUscan™. Seven angular characteristics were measured three times by two observers. The intra- and interobserver reliability were assessed using intraclass correlation coefficient. The differences between the digital and direct measurements were assessed using the measurement and relative errors. The intraclass correlation coefficients for digitally taken angles indicated almost perfect intra- and interobserver reliability, except for the alveolar profile angle showing moderate interobserver agreement. The overall measurement error based on the differences between digitally and directly measured angles was 0.61° and the relative error was 0.68%. Diana Toneva, Silviya Nikolova, and Ivan Georgiev Copyright © 2016 Diana Toneva et al. All rights reserved. Metric Identification of the Same People from Images: How Reliable Is It? Tue, 26 Jul 2016 11:28:54 +0000 Ratios have been applied to humans to identify individuals from images. These attempts have been proven unsuccessful, as camera angle, height, and distortions of the image affected the results. The anharmonic ratio is a ratio of ratios; it has proved successful in the identification of objects from images, as it is not affected by any distortions. The anharmonic ratio was applied to the human body and face to identify individuals from their images. Faces and bodies of twenty South Australian males aged 16–65 years were measured using standard anthropometric techniques. Participants were photographed in high quality images and recorded by standard surveillance camera (low quality images). Ten ratios were calculated from manual measurements and from all images. An Euclidean distance showed ratios incorrectly identified individuals 64.3% of the time between images of different quality. Variation of ratios between individuals is low so that standard deviations of ratios are of the magnitude similar to technical errors of measurements. Therefore participants cannot be isolated based on ratios. Ratios are an unreliable method for identification. Teghan Lucas, Jaliya Kumaratilake, and Maciej Henneberg Copyright © 2016 Teghan Lucas et al. All rights reserved. Purple Staining of Archaeological Human Bone: An Investigation of Probable Cause and Implications for Other Tissues and Artifacts Tue, 31 May 2016 11:26:55 +0000 Excavations in the 1990s at the medieval Chapter House of Worcester Cathedral, UK, revealed medieval human skeletal remains, some of which exhibited a distinctive purple coloration. The nature of the colored bone was investigated using solvents for stain extraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), plane polarized (PPL) and cross-polarized (XPL) light microscopy, and auto fluorescence (AF) microscopy. Normal bone from the cemetery was used as a control. The color does not arise from a stain soluble in normal organic solvents. EDX and XRD analysis showed no significant difference between purple and normal bone. XRF analysis shows the presence of trace levels of iron, manganese, zinc, and copper in the affected material. This exhibited a pink color in acid phase and a blue color in alkaline phase. These two states were reversible. The alkaline phase gradually changed irreversibly to yellow over time. These data suggest that the coloration is consistent with the presence of high levels of purple acid phosphatase (PAP) enzyme. The presence of trace amounts of iron, manganese, zinc, and copper suggests a plant or fungal origin for the putative PAP, possibly a member of the Aspergillus ficuum species. Garrard Cole and Tony Waldron Copyright © 2016 Garrard Cole and Tony Waldron. All rights reserved. The Difficulty of Sexing Skeletons from Unknown Populations Thu, 31 Dec 2015 08:58:03 +0000 Determination of sex from skeletal remains is performed using a number of methods developed by biological anthropology. They must be evaluated for consistency and for their performance in a forensic setting. Twenty skeletons of varied provenance had their sex determined by 15 existing methods of forensic anthropology (7 metric and 8 morphological). The methods were evaluated for their consistency in determination of sex. No single individual was identified as belonging to one sex exclusively. Ambiguous results were obtained by metric methods for fourteen individuals (70%) and by morphological methods for only five individuals (25%) (Chi-squared = 4.3, df = 1, ). Methods which use the size of bones as an indicator of sex perform poorly on skeletal remains of individuals of unknown provenance. Methods which combine morphologic and metric techniques, that is, geometric morphometric analysis, may result in greater levels of consistency. Ingrid Sierp and Maciej Henneberg Copyright © 2015 Ingrid Sierp and Maciej Henneberg. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “New Data on Food Consumption in Pre-Hispanic Populations from Northwest Argentina (ca. 1000–1550 A.D.): The Contribution of Carbon and Nitrogen Isotopic Composition of Human Bones” Tue, 25 Aug 2015 10:27:28 +0000 María Soledad Gheggi and Verónica Isabel Williams Copyright © 2015 María Soledad Gheggi and Verónica Isabel Williams. All rights reserved. Traditional and Skilled Birth Attendants in Zimbabwe: A Situational Analysis and Some Policy Considerations Mon, 18 May 2015 07:38:41 +0000 The paper focuses on the situational analysis of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and skilled birth attendants (SBAs) in Zimbabwe. Against a background of a frail health care system, characterised by a shortage in skilled professionals, increased cost of medical care, and geographic and economic inaccessibility of health care centres among others, TBAs have remained a life-line for especially many rural women in maternal health care provision. Moreover, TBAs have also found their way into the urban areas of Zimbabwe. The shift in international policy and health funding toward skilled birth attendants (i.e., an accredited health professional) has materialized into concerted government efforts to increase numbers of both midwifery training institutions and midwives themselves. The call for SBAs, though a worthy ideal, is out of touch with the lived realities of pregnant women in low resource settings such as Zimbabwe. The study is concerned with situational analysis of TBAs and SBAs in maternal health care service provision in Zimbabwe analysing and evaluating policy considerations. Naume Zorodzai Choguya Copyright © 2015 Naume Zorodzai Choguya. All rights reserved. Globally Declining Population of Women Folk Causing Sex Imbalance Is a Serious Concern: An Analysis of Sex Ratio around the Globe Tue, 12 May 2015 13:35:36 +0000 Successful existence and perpetuation of any species depend on its reproductive success. In case of humans, the theoretical proportion of males and females should be 1 : 1, but this equilibrium was disturbed in many parts of the world. What are the determinants of sex imbalance in human should be found out to combat the problem. The data were gathered for 227 countries. The sex ratio for human population of the world was found 101 males for 100 females, but it varies from 74 to 219 among the countries. The number of countries having higher number of females as compared to males is 132, as they have 99 or less males per 100 females, whereas in 71 countries the total population of males is greater than the females. And only 24 countries have balanced sex ratio. Regression analysis shows that fertility, rate of natural increase, mortality, and gender inequality index have inverse effect, and they account for 24.4%, 23.1%, 18.8%, 18.9%, 16.3%, 16.1%, and 5.1% of variability, respectively. There is great need to identify such countries and region where sex selective abortion is being practiced and to find out appropriate strategies to combat such problem. Rajesh K. Gautam, Jyoti Jhariya, and Pardeep Kumar Copyright © 2015 Rajesh K. Gautam et al. All rights reserved. Diagnosis of Mercurial Teeth in a Possible Case of Congenital Syphilis and Tuberculosis in a 19th Century Child Skeleton Sun, 29 Mar 2015 11:54:00 +0000 Without the presence of “caries sicca,” “sabre shins,” and nodes/expansion of the long bones with superficial cavitation, differential diagnosis of venereal syphilis and tuberculosis (TB) may be difficult as various infections produce similar responses. However, congenital syphilis has distinctive features facilitating a diagnosis. A case study of remains of a juvenile European settler (probably male, 8–10 years old) (B70) buried in the 19th century and excavated in 2000 from the cemetery of the Anglican Church of St. Marys in South Australia is presented. B70 demonstrated that the two diseases might have been present in the same individual, congenital syphilis and TB. Widespread destruction of vertebral bodies and kyphosis-related rib deformations indicate advanced TB. Severe dental hypoplasia is limited to permanent incisors and first molars; there is pitting on the palate, periosteal reaction on the skull vault, and thinned clavicles. Dental signs are not limited to “screwdriver” central incisors and mulberry molars. Apical portions of the crowns of permanent upper, lower, central, and lateral incisors have multiple hypoplastic-disorganized defects; deciduous canines have severely hypoplastic crowns while possibly hypoplastic occlusal surfaces of lower deciduous second molars are largely destroyed by extensive caries. These dental abnormalities resemble teeth affected by mercurial treatment in congenital syphilitic patients as described by Hutchinson. Stella Ioannou, Maciej Henneberg, Renata J. Henneberg, and Timothy Anson Copyright © 2015 Stella Ioannou et al. All rights reserved. Anthropometric Characteristics of Underprivileged Adolescents: A Study from Urban Slums of India Wed, 24 Dec 2014 00:10:00 +0000 Purpose. The anthropometric status and growth of adolescents living in challenging conditions such as slums are insufficiently studied. The purpose here was to describe anthropometric characteristics and nutritional status of adolescents from urban slums of India and to study the factors affecting it. Methods. Anthropometric, socioeconomic and dietary habit data were collected using structured questionnaires of six hundred adolescents aged 10–19 years by house-to-house survey conducted in two randomly selected slums of Nashik, Western India. The growth of adolescents was compared using WHO and Indian reference populations. Mixed effects logistic regression models were used to examine associations between anthropometric measures and income, mother’s education, household size, and dietary intake. Results. Prevalences of stunting and thinness were lower using the Indian reference population compared to that of WHO. Stunting was more prevalent than thinness in the study subjects, and boys suffered more than girls. The effect of age on stunting was different among boys than girls. A mother’s education was highly significantly associated with both stunting and thinness in both sexes. Household size and income were significantly associated with the nutritional status of girls. Conclusions. Educating mothers about the nutritional needs of adolescents may help to improve adolescents’ anthropometric profile and future health. Sushama A. Khopkar, Suvi M. Virtanen, and Sangita Kulathinal Copyright © 2014 Sushama A. Khopkar et al. All rights reserved. Dolicocephalization in Cephalic Indices of Adult Yorubas of Nigeria Wed, 03 Dec 2014 12:26:51 +0000 Cephalic index is an important parameter useful in establishing racial and sexual dimorphism. This study was carried out to determine the cephalic indices of adult Yorubas of age 18 to 40 years. One thousand and twenty (1020) Yoruba adults consisting of 493 males and 527 females were recruited randomly for the study. These were all residents of Port Harcourt, Rivers State of Nigeria. The mean cephalic index of Yorubas without reference to gender was 74.39 ± 5.41. Dominant and rare types of head shapes are dolicocephalic (68.33%) and hyperbrachycephalic (5.00%), respectively. The mean cephalic indices were 75.02 ± 4.76 (mesocephalic) in males and 73.75 ± 5.13 (dolicocephalic) in females. We conclude that Yoruba males are mesocephalic while Yoruba females are dolicocephalic. Besides, this study also reveals dolicocephalization tending towards mesocephalization amongst Yorubas. These findings will be very useful in forensic science, physical and medical anthropology, and clinical practice, most especially craniofacial surgery as it presents a characteristic feature of the head configuration for this Nigerian race. G. S. Oladipo, K. C. Anugweje, and I. F. Bob-Manuel Copyright © 2014 G. S. Oladipo et al. All rights reserved. A Study of Facial Index among Malay Population Thu, 13 Nov 2014 10:13:31 +0000 Facial analysis is anthropologically useful to identify the racial, ethnical, and sexual differences. The present study was done to see the sex difference and variation of facial index among Malaysian population. Cross-sectional descriptive type of study was done in Anatomy Department in UniKL RCMP which was performed on 81 Malay people (40 males, 41 females) aged 19–30 years. To measure the morphological parameters (facial height, facial width, and facial index), digital slide calliper and scale were used. There were significant differences found in all facial parameters of males compared with the females. The mean morphological facial height was 111.9 ± 8.4 and morphological facial width was 127.3 ± 8.0. The range of facial index was 67.44–106.90 for males and 75.21–97.99 for females. The total facial index was calculated according to the formula and the results obtained were analyzed statistically using the -test which was statistically significant (0.003). The dominant phenotype in Malay population was mesoprosopic or round face (45%) and least common face type was hyperleptoprosopic or very long face (5%). There were significant variations in the face index between Malay males and females; further study with large sample size in different races in Malaysia is recommended. Tahamida Yesmin, San San Thwin, Shazia Afrin Urmi, Mar Mar Wai, Pu. Fazlin Zaini, and Khairil Azwan Copyright © 2014 Tahamida Yesmin et al. All rights reserved. Sacred Groves: The Consequence of Traditional Management Mon, 10 Nov 2014 12:37:28 +0000 The Western Ghats are one of the globally recognized “hot spots” of biodiversity in India. In Maharashtra small patches of forest in the Ghats are protected by local people as “sacred groves.” They are called “Devrai” which have been managed by local people and are dedicated to the deity in the grove. These groves act as benchmarks of less disturbed vegetation. The study has been conducted on fifteen groves through detailed expert and semistructured interviews of their priests and locals have been conducted to appreciate their traditional management systems. There is no evidence to show that the groves were intended primarily for biodiversity conservation or as a science based natural resource management strategy. Biodiversity conservation of groves is thus a by-product of a traditional belief of locals in the supernatural power of the forest deity. The concept of ICCAs (Indigenous Community Conserved Areas) and making registries of local knowledge of biodiversity as a tool for developing future conservation initiatives can act as a useful strategy to preserve the groves in the face of regional development pressures and gain government recognition for protecting the groves in the long term. Arpita Vipat and Erach Bharucha Copyright © 2014 Arpita Vipat and Erach Bharucha. All rights reserved. Improving Households Knowledge and Attitude on Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Practices through School Health Programme in Nyakach, Kisumu County in Western Kenya Mon, 10 Nov 2014 12:36:23 +0000 The global problem of access to improved sanitation and water management practices has been compounded by the gap existing between knowledge and practice as well as attitude. The aim of this study was to assess households' knowledge and attitude on water, sanitation, and hygiene practices through a school health programme. Semistructured questionnaires, focus group discussions, key informant interviews, and observation checklist were used to obtain information from 95 households which were systematically sampled. It was found that a school programme may not improve the gap between knowledge, attitude, and practice but may be good for future generations. This was found to be due to sociocultural issues which impede hygiene transformation. The implication is that health programmes must find innovative ways of bridging this gap in order to bring change in households through culture sensitive interventions. Job Wasonga, Charles Omondi Olang’o, and Felix Kioli Copyright © 2014 Job Wasonga et al. All rights reserved. Nutritional Status among Females of Bhaina Tribe of Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh, India: An Anthropological Insight Tue, 23 Sep 2014 05:14:02 +0000 Problem of malnutrition increases, being one of the significant national issues in a developing country like India. In the present study, an attempt was made to understand the sociodemographic profile and nutritional status among the Bhaina tribes of Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh. A total of 161 females (2–75 years) were screened for anthropometric measurements. Nutritional status was evaluated in four groups of female categories: preschool: 2–5 years (), children: 6#x2013;12 years (), adolescent: 13–18 years (), and adults >18 years () using the age specific cutoff points of body mass index (BMI). Statistical analysis was performed using MS EXCEL and SPSS software. More than 30% of the studied population is observed to be illiterate and unemployed. Significant age group difference is observed for anthropometric variables considered in the present study. Overall prevalence of thinness among the studied population was 32.3% (critical). Occurrence of thinness was found to be highest among children (57.1%). Occupation with wage labourer is significantly higher among parents of normal children (26.6%) than parents of undernourished children (19.6%). Findings of the present study suggest significance of anthropological approach in understanding nutritional status among different ethnic groups, specifically tribal community. Huidrom Suraj Singh, Manisha Ghritlahre, and Subal Das Copyright © 2014 Huidrom Suraj Singh et al. All rights reserved. The Discolouration of Human Teeth from Archaeological Contexts: Elemental Analysis of a Black Tooth from a Roman Cranium Recovered from the River Witham, Lincoln, UK Sun, 14 Sep 2014 09:24:38 +0000 A human cranium was recovered from the River Witham, Lincoln, UK, at Stamp End Lock during a police operation in 2002. Although extensive trauma was noted, the skull was not of forensic interest since radiocarbon dating revealed that the individual had lived during the Roman occupation of Lincoln, almost 2,000 years ago. The skull had unusual black “metallic” staining on the occlusal surfaces of the teeth. As this kind of staining is relatively uncommon, it was investigated to determine the possible cause. An individual tooth was subjected to two elemental analyses: inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX). A small sample of modern teeth was also analysed for comparison to determine “normal” ranges of certain elements. Analysis of the ancient tooth shows very high levels of manganese (275 µg/g) and iron (1540 µg/g) compared to modern teeth values (1.90 µg/g Mn and 40.81 µg/g Fe). These results were consistent with the black staining arising from iron and manganese infiltrating bone and dental tissue from the depositional environment, and not a consequence of diet, pathological process or cultural practices. Emma L. Brown, Ronald A. Dixon, and Jason W. Birkett Copyright © 2014 Emma L. Brown et al. All rights reserved. An Ethnographic Study of Diabetes: Implications for the Application of Patient Centred Care in Cameroon Tue, 26 Aug 2014 13:05:59 +0000 Participant observation was conducted to explore the understanding of diabetes and examine the implications of these understandings for providing effective patient centered care in Cameroon. Ethnographic techniques—content and thematic analysis—were used to analyze the data collected from diverse techniques. Most participants distinguished “natural,” “supernatural,” and “man-made” causes of diabetes. Such aetiologies guided the behaviour and approaches adopted for treatment and helped explain why biomedical and traditional healing frameworks could so readily be used in tandem. Clinical encounters are often only one small part of the diabetes care process, alongside recourse to traditional medicine. With rituals, agents causing diabetes are apparently more convincingly explained as powerful reinforcement and a cure promised in traditional medicine. Though it seems “irrational” and dangerous to clinics when patients alternate between therapeutic regimes or pursue both simultaneously, it seems perfectly rational and beneficial to patients and beyond. So long as biomedical practitioners fail to recognize that their patients will probably also have recourse to traditional medicine, they and their services may compound the problems they face for patients to discuss openly how they have been managing their condition. Paschal Kum Awah Copyright © 2014 Paschal Kum Awah. All rights reserved. Fertility Behaviour and Effect of Son Preference among the Muslims of Manipur, India Tue, 26 Aug 2014 08:26:15 +0000 Fertility is one of the most important components of demographic studies affecting almost all aspects of human life. Present paper is an attempt to study various factors, including preference of son, affecting the fertility of Manipuri Muslims. A household survey was conducted in Imphal East and Thoubal districts where the concentration of Muslim is found to be the highest, interviewing 512 ever married women. Age at marriage, age at first conception, education, occupation, types of family, and per capita annual income are influencing the fertility rate among this population. Uses of birth control measures, consanguineous marriage, and age at menarche have no effect on fertility rate. The preference for more sons is observed in this study leading to increase in overall fertility rate. Mohammad Asghar, Benrithung Murry, and Kallur Nava Saraswathy Copyright © 2014 Mohammad Asghar et al. All rights reserved. Body Weight Concerns among Urban Adolescent Girls: A Microlevel Study Wed, 02 Jul 2014 11:54:28 +0000 Growing consciousness about ideal body image leads to dietary modifications and consequent eating disorders among girls in developing countries like India. The present study aims to (i) assess the prevalence of body weight consciousness and related behaviours among a group of adolescent girls; (ii) assess the sociodemographic correlates of weight related behaviours; and (iii) compare weight related behaviours of the girls of two religious groups residing in Howrah. The study is the outcome of a cross-sectional school based survey involving 280 (159 Hindu and 121 Muslim) girls from standards 8 to 11. Significant differences exist between two religious groups with respect to their family size, socioeconomic profile, and media exposures (in terms of watching television). Consciousness about body weight among girls shows significant difference with respect to religion, family size (), father’s occupation (), level of education of both the parents, and media exposure (). Consciousness about body weight drives them to adopt several behavioural measures like calorie restriction, food avoidance, and dieting. Sociodemographic correlates of all these behaviours have been analyzed. The study documents that concern over body image and weight loss is quite important among these urban girls. Susmita Mukhopadhyay, Nandini Ganguly, and Shailendra Kumar Mishra Copyright © 2014 Susmita Mukhopadhyay et al. All rights reserved. A Brief Overview of the Last 10 Years of Major Late Pleistocene Discoveries in the Old World: Homo floresiensis, Neanderthal, and Denisovan Sun, 15 Jun 2014 11:45:20 +0000 In the last ten years, new fossil, archaeological, and genetic data have significantly altered our understanding of the peopling of the Old World in the Late Pleistocene. Scholars have long been challenged to define humanity’s place in evolution and to trace our phylogeny. Differences in the skeletal morphology of hominin fossils have often led to the naming of distinct new species, but recent genetic findings have challenged the traditional perspective by demonstrating that modern human DNA contains genes inherited from Neanderthals and Denisovans, thus questioning their status as separate species. The recent discovery of Homo floresiensis from Flores Island has also raised interesting queries about how much genetic and morphological diversity was present during the Late Pleistocene. This paper discusses the nature and implications of the evidence with respect to Homo floresiensis, Neanderthals, and Denisovans and briefly reviews major Late Pleistocene discoveries from the last ten years of research in the Old World and their significance to the study of human evolution. Fernanda Neubauer Copyright © 2014 Fernanda Neubauer. All rights reserved. Risk of Cardiovascular Disease among Diabetic Patients in Manipur, Northeast India Mon, 26 May 2014 07:50:45 +0000 Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the major cause of premature mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. The present study was conducted to assess cardiovascular risk among diabetic patients of Northeast India. The present cross-sectional study included 81 diabetic patients (39 males and 42 females) aged 36–74 years from the district Imphal of Manipur, Northeast India. Sex-specific Framingham general cardiovascular risk prediction equations were used to calculate the 10-year risk for cardiovascular disease. The probable risk factors were determined by cross-tabulation of cardiometabolic parameters with the 10-year cardiovascular risk level. Males were found to be at higher risk of developing CVD in the future as compared to females with a discernible accumulation of adverse cardiovascular risk factors among them. 38.3% patients were at high risk, 37.0% at moderate risk and 24.7% at low risk for developing CVD in the next 10 years. Systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and smoking contributed significantly to high degree of cardiovascular risk. Presence of cardiovascular risk factors among diabetic patients at diagnosis accentuates the need of intensive management of cardiovascular complications, taking into consideration the traditional dietary pattern of the population. Mary Grace Tungdim, T. Ginzaniang, G. Poufullung Kabui, Deepali Verma, and Satwanti Kapoor Copyright © 2014 Mary Grace Tungdim et al. All rights reserved. Paleogenetic Studies in Guajajara Skeletal Remains, Maranhão State, Brazil Wed, 14 May 2014 00:00:00 +0000 In the early 17th century, French and Portuguese colonizers and Jesuit priests settled in the state of Maranhão and made contact with the Guajajara, an ethnic group that lived along the margins of the Pindaré River. The Guajajara maintained contact with Brazilian national society over the centuries, including with Brazilian admixed populations, and with African slaves that flocked towards the region from the 18th century onwards. The present study investigates the origins of this admixture using mitochondrial genetic variability. The bones of 12 individuals investigated, which are currently part of the collection of the National Museum, were tested for genetic diversity. aDNA was extracted by the phenol-chloroform method and by DNA IQ (Promega, Madison, WI, USA). Amplification of the HVS I region was performed by PCR, followed by direct sequencing using the Big Dye kit (Life Technologies, Foster City, CA, USA). This region was found to represent haplogroups of Amerindians (A, C, and D) and Africans (L, L1b, L1c, and L3). The presence of African haplogroups in Guajajara bones from as early as the 18th century is consistent with historical and anthropological data, suggesting the admixture with Africans and/or Afrodescendants. Therefore, this study demonstrates that women with African haplogroups were introduced into the Guajajara population. Daniela Leite, Alysson Leitão, Ana Paula Schaan, Anderson N. R. Marinho, Sheila Souza, Claudia Rodrigues-Carvalho, Francisca Cardoso, and Ândrea Ribeiro-dos-Santos Copyright © 2014 Daniela Leite et al. All rights reserved. Traditional Birth Attendants and Policy Ambivalence in Zimbabwe Wed, 07 May 2014 08:58:07 +0000 This paper analyses the importance of the services rendered by traditional birth attendants (TBAs) to pregnant women in Zimbabwe. It argues that, though an integral part of the health system, the ambivalence in terms of policy on the part of the government leaves them in a predicament. Sociocultural values as well as tradition imbue TBAs power and authority to manage pregnancies and assist in child deliveries. On the other hand, government policies expounded through the Ministry of Health (MoH) programs and policies appear to be relegating them to the fringes of healthcare provision. However, in a country with a failing health system characterized by mass exodus of qualified personnel, availability of drugs, and understaffing of healthcare centres, among others, TBAs remain the lifeline for many women in the country. Instead of sidelining them in healthcare interventions, I argue that their integration, however, problematic and often noted to be with disastrous consequences for traditional medicine, presents the sole viable solution towards achieving MDGs 4 and 5. The government and MoH should capitalize on the availability of and standing working relations of TBAs with the grassroots for better/positive maternal health outcomes. In a country reeling with high maternal deaths, TBAs’ status and position in society make them the best intervention tools. Naume Zorodzai Choguya Copyright © 2014 Naume Zorodzai Choguya. All rights reserved. Sexual Dimorphism in Blood Pressure and Hypertension among Adult Parengi Porjas of Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India Thu, 10 Apr 2014 07:03:03 +0000 The present study investigated blood pressure levels as well as the prevalence of hypertension among adult Parengi Porja tribals of village Munchingput Mandalam, Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh, India. A cross-sectional study was used to collect data on systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and pulse rate. A total of 137 adults (100 males and 37 females) were measured and classified into three age groups, that is, Gr-I: 23 to 32 years, Gr-II: 33 to 42 years, and Gr-III: ≥ 43 years. Negative significant sex difference in SBP among age group I (; ) was observed. Positive significant sex difference in DBP among age group I (; ) was also observed. Significant age group difference was noticed for SBP (; ) among males. Based on SBP, the prevalence of prehypertension and stage I hypertension in males was 25.0% and 5.0%, respectively. Similarly, in females the prevalence of prehypertension and stage I hypertension based on SBP was 32.4% and 5.4%, respectively. On the basis of DBP, the prevalence of stage I hypertension in males was 5.0%. Similarly, in females, the prevalence of stage I hypertension based on DBP was 5.4%. Our results suggest that females of this ethnic group were more prone to have prehypertension and stage I hypertension than males. I. Arjun Rao, Adimoolam Chandrasekhar, Venugopal N. Pulamaghatta, Subal Das, and Kaushik Bose Copyright © 2014 I. Arjun Rao et al. All rights reserved.