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Journal of Aging Research
Volume 2012, Article ID 172957, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/172957
Research Article

Intermuscular Adipose Tissue Is Muscle Specific and Associated with Poor Functional Performance

1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California, San Diego, Mail Code 0863, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
2Program in Physical Therapy, Washington University in St. Louis, MO 63108, USA

Received 3 January 2012; Revised 23 February 2012; Accepted 7 March 2012

Academic Editor: Neil D. Reeves

Copyright Š 2012 Lori J. Tuttle et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Purpose. People with obesity, diabetes, and peripheral neuropathy have high levels of intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) volume which has been inversely related to physical function. We determined if IMAT is muscle specific, if calf IMAT is different between a healthy obese group (HO), a group with diabetes mellitus (D), and a group with diabetes mellitus and peripheral neuropathy (DN), and if IMAT volume or the ratio of IMAT/muscle volume is related to physical function in these groups. Methods. 10 healthy obese people, 11 with type 2 diabetes, 24 with diabetes and peripheral neuropathy, had assessments of muscle morphology, physical function and muscle performance. Results. The gastrocnemius muscle had a higher ratio of IMAT/muscle volume than any other muscle or compartment. There were no differences between groups in calf muscle or IMAT volumes. Calf IMAT was inversely related to physical performance on the 6-minute walk test (𝑟=−0.47) and physical performance test (𝑟=−0.36). IMAT/muscle volume was inversely related to physical performance (PPT, 𝑟=−0.44; 6 MW 𝑟=−0.48; stair power, 𝑟=−0.30). Conclusions. IMAT accumulation varies in calf muscles, is highest in the gastrocnemius muscle, and is associated with poor physical performance.