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Journal of Aging Research
Volume 2012, Article ID 235765, 15 pages
Clinical Study

Efficacy of a Multimodal Cognitive Rehabilitation Including Psychomotor and Endurance Training in Parkinson's Disease

1Department of Neurology, Justus-Liebig University, Klinikstraße 33, 35392 Giessen, Germany
2Department of Psychiatry, Cognitive Laboratory Justus-Liebig University, Am Steg 22, 35385 Giessen, Germany
3Neurologisches Rehabilitationszentrum, HELIOS Klinik Zihlschlacht AG, Hauptstrße 2-4, 8588 Zihlschlacht, Switzerland
4Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Klinikum Osnabrück, Am Finkenhügel 1, 49076 Osnabrück, Germany

Received 1 April 2012; Revised 19 June 2012; Accepted 3 July 2012

Academic Editor: Alice Nieuwboer

Copyright © 2012 I. Reuter et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Mild cognitive impairment, especially executive dysfunction might occur early in the course of Parkinson's disease. Cognitive training is thought to improve cognitive performance. However, transfer of improvements achieved in paper and pencil tests into daily life has been difficult. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether a multimodal cognitive rehabilitation programme including physical exercises might be more successful than cognitive training programmes without motor training. 240 PD-patients were included in the study and randomly allocated to three treatment arms, group A cognitive training, group B cognitive training and transfer training and group C cognitive training, transfer training and psychomotor and endurance training. The primary outcome measure was the ADAS-Cog. The secondary outcome measure was the SCOPA-Cog. Training was conducted for 4 weeks on a rehabilitation unit, followed by 6 months training at home. Caregivers received an education programme. The combination of cognitive training using paper and pencil and the computer, transfer training and physical training seems to have the greatest effect on cognitive function. Thus, patients of group C showed the greatest improvement on the ADAS-Cog and SCOPA-COG and were more likely to continue with the training programme after the study.