Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Aging Research
Volume 2012, Article ID 243958, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/243958
Review Article

Does Physical Activity Increase Life Expectancy? A Review of the Literature

1Klinik für Neurologie, Zentralklinik Bad Berka, Robert-Koch-Allee 9, 99438 Bad Berka, Germany
2Fakultät Statistik, Technische Universität Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund, Germany
3Sportwissenschaft, Universität Konstanz, Universitätsstraße 10, 78457 Konstanz, Germany

Received 18 February 2012; Revised 19 March 2012; Accepted 13 April 2012

Academic Editor: Iris Reuter

Copyright © 2012 C. D. Reimers et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. E. Straus, S. R. Majumdar, and F. A. McAlister, “New evidence for stroke prevention: scientific review,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 288, no. 11, pp. 1388–1395, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. Ebrahim, F. Taylor, K. Ward, A. Beswick, M. Burke, and G. Davey Smith, “Multiple risk factor interventions for primary prevention of coronary heart disease,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol. 1, Article ID CD001561, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. P. E. Adami, A. Negro, N. Lala, and P. Martelletti, “The role of physical activity in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases,” Clinica Terapeutica, vol. 161, no. 6, pp. 537–541, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. B. K. Pedersen and B. Saltin, “Evidence for prescribing exercise as therapy in chronic disease,” Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 3–63, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. C. M. Ulrich, J. Wiskemann, and K. Steindorf, “Physiologic and molecular mechanisms linking physical activity to cancer risk and progression,” Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 3–9, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  6. D. E. R. Warburton, C. W. Nicol, and S. S. D. Bredin, “Health benefits of physical activity: the evidence,” CMAJ, vol. 174, no. 6, pp. 801–809, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. G. Samitz, M. Egger, and M. Zwahlen, “Domains of physical activity and all-cause mortality: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies,” International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 40, no. 5, Article ID dyr112, pp. 1382–1400, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. B. Farahmand, G. Broman, U. De Faire, D. Vågerö, and A. Ahlbom, “Golf: a game of life and death—reduced mortality in Swedish golf players,” Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 419–424, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. E. Gaber and M. Wildner, “Heft 52—Sterblichkeit, Todesursachen und regionale Unterschiede,” in Gesundheitsberichterstattung des Bundes, E. Gaber and T. Ziese, Eds., Robert Koch-Institut, Berlin, Germany, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  10. M. Halle and M. H. Schoenberg, “Physical activity in the prevention and treatment of colorectal carcinoma,” Deutsches Ärzteblatt, vol. 106, no. 44, pp. 722–727, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. D. E. R. Warburton, S. Charlesworth, A. Ivey, L. Nettlefold, and S. S. D. Bredin, “A systematic review of the evidence for Canada's Physical Activity Guidelines for Adults,” International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, vol. 7, article 39, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. E. M. Monninkhof, S. G. Elias, F. A. Vlems et al., “Physical activity and breast cancer: a systematic review,” Epidemiology, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 137–157, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. K. Z. Walker, K. O'Dea, M. Gomez, S. Girgis, and R. Colagiuri, “Diet and exercise in the prevention of diabetes,” Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 344–352, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. G. A. Kelley and K. S. Kelley, “Aerobic exercise and HDL2-C: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 184, no. 1, pp. 207–215, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. C. D. Reimers, G. Knapp, A. K. Reimers, and B. Griewing, “Physical activity and stroke,” Aktuelle Neurologie. In press.
  16. L. Byberg, H. Melhus, R. Gedeborg et al., “Total mortality after changes in leisure time physical activity in 50 year old men: 35 Year follow-up of population based cohort,” British Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 43, no. 7, artice 482, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. G. E. Fraser and D. J. Shavlik, “Ten years of life is it a matter of choice?” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 161, no. 13, pp. 1645–1652, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. T. Jonker, C. De Laet, O. H. Franco, A. Peeters, J. Mackenbach, and W. J. Nusselder, “Physical activity and life expectancy with and without diabetes: life table analysis of the Framingham Heart Study,” Diabetes Care, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 38–43, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. W. J. Nusselder, O. H. Franco, A. Peeters, and J. P. MacKenbach, “Living healthier for longer: comparative effects of three heart-healthy behaviors on life expectancy with and without cardiovascular disease,” BMC Public Health, vol. 9, article 487, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. W. J. Nusselder, C. W. N. Looman, O. H. Franco, A. Peeters, A. S. Slingerland, and J. P. Mackenbach, “The relation between non-occupational physical activity and years lived with and without disability,” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, vol. 62, no. 9, pp. 823–828, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. R. S. Paffenbarger, R. T. Hyde, C. C. Hsieh, and A. L. Wing, “Physical activity, other life-style patterns, cardiovascular disease and longevity,” Acta Medica Scandinavica, vol. 220, no. 711, pp. 85–91, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. R. S. Paffenbarger, R. T. Hyde, A. L. Wing, and C. C. Hsieh, “Physical activity, all-cause mortality, and longevity of college alumni,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 314, no. 10, pp. 605–613, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. R. S. Paffenbarger, R. T. Hyde, A. L. Wing, I. M. Lee, D. L. Jung, and J. B. Kampert, “The association of changes in physical-activity level and other lifestyle characteristics with mortality among men,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 328, no. 8, pp. 538–545, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. R. S. Paffenbarger, J. B. Kampert, I. M. Lee, R. T. Hyde, R. W. Leung, and A. L. Wing, “Changes in physical activity and other lifeway patterns influencing longevity,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 857–865, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. Menotti, M. Lanti, G. Maiani, and D. Kromhout, “Determinants of longevity and all-cause mortality among middle-aged men. Role of 48 personal characteristics in a 40-year follow-up of Italian Rural Areas in the Seven Countries Study,” Aging, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 394–406, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. Pekkanen, B. Marti, and A. Nissinen, “Reduction of premature mortality by high physical activity: a 20-year follow-up of middle-aged Finnish men,” The Lancet, vol. 1, no. 8548, pp. 1473–1477, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. C. P. Wen, J. P. M. Wai, M. K. Tsai et al., “Minimum amount of physical activity for reduced mortality and extended life expectancy: a prospective cohort study,” The Lancet, vol. 378, no. 9798, pp. 1244–1253, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. A. Bélanger, L. Martel, J. M. Berthelot, and R. Wilkins, “Gender differences in disability-free life expectancy for selected risk factors and chronic conditions in Canada,” Journal of Women and Aging, vol. 14, no. 1-2, pp. 61–83, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. L. Ferrucci, G. Izmirlian, S. Leveille et al., “Smoking, physical activity, and active life expectancy,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 149, no. 7, pp. 645–653, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. C. Prout, “Life expectancy of college oarsmen,” JAMA, vol. 220, no. 13, pp. 1709–1711, 1972. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. S. Sarna, T. Sahi, M. Koskenvuo, and J. Kaprio, “Increased life expectancy of world class male athletes,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 237–244, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. J. Karvonen, “Endurance sports, longevity, and health,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 301, pp. 653–655, 1977. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. J. Karvonen, H. Klemola, J. Virkajarvi, and A. Kekkonen, “Longevity of endurance skiers,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 49–51, 1974. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. F. Sanchis-Gomar, G. Olaso-Gonzalez, D. Corella, M. C. Gomez-Cabrera, and J. Vina, “Increased average longevity among the Tour de France cyclists,” International Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 644–647, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. S. Sarna and J. Kaprio, “Life expectancy of former elite athletes,” Sports Medicine, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 149–151, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. E. L. Abel and M. L. Kruger, “The longevity of baseball hall of famers compared to other players,” Death Studies, vol. 29, no. 10, pp. 959–963, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. E. L. Abel and M. L. Kruger, “Longevity of major league baseball players,” Research in Sports Medicine, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 1–5, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. O. Kuss, A. Kluttig, and K. H. Greiser, “Longevity of soccer players: an investigation of all German internationals from 1908 to 2006,” Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. e260–e265, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. A. Hudec, E. Mahoney, H. J. Montoye, H. Olson, and W. D. van Huss, “Study of the longevity and morbidity of college athletes,” JAMA, vol. 162, no. 12, pp. 1132–1134, 1956. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. A. ROOK, “An investigation into the longevity of Cambridge sportsmen,” British Medical Journal, vol. 1, no. 4865, pp. 773–777, 1954. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. C. D. Lee, X. Sui, S. P. Hooker, J. R. Hébert, and S. N. Blair, “Combined impact of lifestyle on cancer mortality in men,” Annals of Epidemiology, vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 749–754, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. E. S. Ford, G. Zhao, J. Tsai, and C. Li, “Low-Risk lifestyle behaviors and all-cause mortality: findings from the national health and nutrition examination survey III mortality study,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 101, no. 10, pp. 1922–1929, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  43. H. M. Ahmed, M. J. Blaha, K. Nasir, J. J. Rivera, and R. S. Blumenthal, “Effects of physical activity on cardiovascular disease,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 109, no. 2, pp. 288–295, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  44. Z. Radak, N. Hart, L. Sarga et al., “Exercise plays a preventive role against Alzheimer's disease,” Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 777–783, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus