Journal of Aging Research / 2012 / Article / Tab 3

Review Article

Does Physical Activity Increase Life Expectancy? A Review of the Literature

Table 3

Cohort studies comparing the life expectancy of physically active and inactive persons.

SexAge (class) at start of followupAuthorsCountryNumber of individuals, duration of followupEstimate additional years of life (95% CI) (years)Activity of the “active” groupActivity of the “inactive” groupConfounding factors

Women30Fraser and Shavlik [17]USA #12 y2.19
(0.92–3.45)*
At least 3 times per week vigorous all-day or sports activities ≥15 min.Less than 3 times per week intensive all-day and sportive activities ≥15 min.Vegetarian/nonvegetarian, high/low nut consumption, body mass index, never/past smoker, hormone replacement therapy
30Wen et al. [27]Taiwan216.910
8 . 0 5 ± 4 . 0 2  y
3.67
84.08 versus 87.75
Very vigorous physical activity (≥25.5 MET·h/week) during leisure timeInactivity (<3.75 MET·h/week) during leisure timeAge, sex, education, physical work, smoking, alcohol consumption, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, cancer, fasting glucose, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, body mass index
45Bélanger et al. [28]Canada #2 y6.9
81.7 versus 88.6
≥1.5 kcal/kg/d
energy expenditure during leisure time
<1.5 kcal/kg/d
energy expenditure during leisure time
50Jonker et al. [18]USA
(Framingham Heart Study)
2.813
12 y
3.7
(2.6–4.9)
82.3 versus 86.0
High physical activity level (>33 METs/d)Low physical activity level (<30 METs/d)Age, education, smoking, marital status, cardiovascular and lung diseases, cancer, left ventricular hypertrophy, arthritis, ankle edema, total cholesterol, familial history of diabetes mellitus
50Nusselder et al. [20]The Netherlands1.447
2 y
1.8
(0.5–2.7)
76.5 versus 78.3
Walking, biking, gardening, sports >17.33 METs/weekWalking, biking, gardening, sports <12 METs/weekAge, sex, education, cardiovascular disease, cancer, COPD, arthritis, back complaints, neurological diseases
50Nusselder et al. [19]USA (Framingham Heart Study)2.873
12 y
3.4
(2.3–4.5)
82.7 versus 86.1
High physical activity level (>33 METs/d)Low physical activity level (<30 METs/d)Age, sex, education, marital status, smoking, body mass index, blood pressure, cancer, diabetes mellitus, left ventricular hypertrophy, ankle edema, any pulmonary disease, smoking
65Ferrucci et al. [29]USA5.215
6 y
Nonsmoker: 5.7
77.7 versus 83.4
Smoker: 4.2
76.1 versus 80.3
High physical activity (gardening, walking, vigorous exercise) each once per week or several times per month or one of these activities several times per week and another activity once per week or several times per monthActivities as in the active group at most once per month

Men30Fraser and Shavlik [17]USA #12 y2.1
(0.4–3.9)*
At least 3 times per week vigorous all-day or sports activities ≥15 min.Less than 3 times per week intense all-day and sportive activities ≥15 min.Vegetarian/nonvegetarian, high/low nut consumption, body mass index, never/past smoker, hormone replacement therapy
30Wen et al. [27]Taiwan199.265
8 . 0 5 ± 4 . 0 2  y
4.21
80.37 versus 84.58
Very vigorous physical activities (≥25.5 MET·h/week) during leisure timeInactivity (<3.75 MET·h/week) during leisure timeAge, sex, education, physical work, smoking, drinking, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, history of cancer, fasting blood glucose, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, body mass index
35–39Paffenbarger et al. [21]USA (Harvard Alumni)16.936
16 y
1.5*Physical activities (walking, climbing stairs, sports) ≥2.000 kcal/weekPhysical activities (walking, climbing stairs, sports) <2.000 kcal/weekAge, cigarette smoking, arterial hypertension, body mass index, age of parental death
35–39Paffenbarger et al. [22]USA (Harvard Alumni)16.936
12–16 y
2.51*Physical activities (walking, climbing stairs, sports) ≥2.000 kcal/weekPhysical activities (walking, climbing stairs, sports) <500 kcal/weekAge, cigarette smoking, arterial hypertension, body mass index, age of parental death
40–59Menotti et al. [25]Italy1.712
40 y
1.6*Physically activeSedentaryAge, family history of both parents, mean blood pressure, serum cholesterol, mid-arm circumference, forced exspiratory volume, chronic diseases (cardiovascular, diabetes mellitus, cancer), corneal arcus, xanthelasma, body mass index
45Bélanger et al. [28]Canada #2 y3.9
76.9 versus 80.8
≥1.5 kcal/kg/d energy expenditure during leisure time<1.5 kcal/kg/d energy expenditure during leisure time
45–54Paffenbarger et al. [23]USA (Harvard Alumni)10.269
8 y
0.43*Physical activities ≥2.000 kcal/weekPhysical activities <2.000 kcal/weekAge, cigarette smoking, arterial hypertension, overweight, early parental death
45–54Paffenbarger et al. [24]USA (Harvard Alumni)14.785
11 y
1.78*Physical activity (walking, stair climbing, sports, or recreational activities) increased from <1.500 to ≥1.500 kcal/weekPhysical activity (walking, stair climbing, sports, or recreational activities) continuing <1.500 kcal/weekAge, cigarette smoking, arterial hypertension, overweight, alcohol consumption, early parental death, chronic diseases
50Jonker et al. [18]USA (Framingham Heart Study)2.396
12 y
4.1
(2.8–5.4)
75.3 versus 79.4
High physical activity level (>30 METs/d)Low physical activity level (<30 METs/d)Age, education, smoking, marital status, cardiovascular and lung diseases, cancer, left ventricular hypertrophy, arthritis, ankle edema, total cholesterol, familial history of diabetes mellitus
50Nusselder et al. [20]The Netherlands1.519
2 y
2.9
(0.9–4.3)
74.8 versus 76.7
Walking, biking, gardening, sports >17.33 METs/weekWalking, biking, gardening, sports <12 METs/weekAge, sex, education, cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, arthritis, back complaints, neurological diseases
50Nusselder et al. [19]USA (Framingham Heart Study)2.336
12 y
3.5
(2.5–4.6)
76.4 versus 80.0
High physical activity level (>33 METs/d)Low physical activity level (<30 METs/d)Age, sex, education, marital status, body mass index, blood pressure, cancer, diabetes mellitus, left ventricular hypertrophy, ankle edema, any pulmonary disease, smoking
50Byberg et al. [16]Sweden2.205
35 y
2.3
(1.3–3.3)*
Regularly hard physical training or competitive sport or any active recreational sports or heavy gardening at least 3 hours every weekSpending most of the time reading, watching TV, going to the cinema, or engaging in other, mostly sedentary activitiesSmoking, weight and height, alcohol use, obesity, diabetes mellitus, musculoskeletal, neurological, or psychiatric disorders, blood pressure, antihypertensive drugs, total serum cholesterol, educational level, socioeconomic group
65Ferrucci et al. [29]USA3.389
6 y
Nonsmoker: 5.2
76.0 versus 81.2
Smoker: 3.4
74.5 versus 77.9
High physical activity (gardening, walking, vigorous exercise) each once per week or several times per month or one of these activities several times per week and another activity once per week or several times per monthActivities as in the active group maximally once per month

*Total life expectancy not presented, #number of individuals not differentiated between men and women.