Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Aging Research
Volume 2018 (2018), Article ID 4180565, 11 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/4180565
Research Article

Estimating Long-Term Care Costs among Thai Elderly: A Phichit Province Case Study

1College of Public Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
2Prince Mahidol Award Foundation under the Royal Patronage, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Bangkoknoi, Bangkok 10700, Thailand

Correspondence should be addressed to Sathirakorn Pongpanich; ht.ca.aluhc@p.nrokarihtas

Received 19 June 2017; Revised 14 September 2017; Accepted 5 November 2017; Published 17 January 2018

Academic Editor: Rainer Beurskens

Copyright © 2018 Pattaraporn Khongboon and Sathirakorn Pongpanich. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. Srithamrongsawat, K. Bundhamcharoen, S. Sasat, P. Odton, and S. Ratkjaroenkhajorn, Projection of Demand and Expenditure for Institutional Long Term Care in Thailand, Health Insurance System Research Office, Bangkok, Thailand, 2009.
  2. Y. Porapakkham, C. Rao, J. Pattaraarchachai et al., “Estimated causes of death in Thailand, 2005: implications for health policy,” Population Health Metrics, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 14, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. A. Dans, N. Ng, C. Varghese, E. S. Tai, R. Firestone, and R. Bonita, “The rise of chronic non-communicable diseases in southeast Asia: time for action,” The Lancet, vol. 377, no. 9766, pp. 680–689, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. WHO Study Group, Home-Based Long-Term Care: Report of a WHO Study Group, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2000.
  5. G. Damiani, V. Farelli, A. Anselmi et al., “Patterns of long term care in 29 European countries: evidence from an exploratory study,” BMC Health Services Research, vol. 11, no. 1, p. 316, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. World Bank, “Long-term care in aging East Asia and Pacific,” in Live Long and Prosper: Aging in East Asia and Pacific, World Bank, Washington, DC, USA, 2016. View at Google Scholar
  7. N. Wongsawang, S. Lagampan, P. Lapvongwattana, and B. J. Bowers, “Family caregiving for dependent older adults in Thai families,” Journal of Nursing Scholarship, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 336–343, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. Knodel, J. Kespichayawattana, S. Wiwatwanich, and C. Saengtienchai, “The future of family support for Thai elderly: views of the populace,” Journal of Population and Social Studies, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 110–132, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  9. Hfocus, “Lamsonthi model: Family Care Team prototype,” February 2017, https://www.hfocus.org/content/2016/04/12048. View at Google Scholar
  10. Isranew Agency, “NHSO set a budget 600 million baht for dependent elderly care for 1,000 subdistrict,” February 2017, https://www.isranews.org/isranews/41355-nsho_41355.html. View at Google Scholar
  11. National Health Security Office, Financial Management Framework for Severe Dependency Elderly Fiscal Year 2016, National Health Security Office, Nonthaburi, Thailand, 2015.
  12. W. Suwanrada, S. Sasat, and S. Kumruangrit, Financing Long Term Care Services for the Elderly in the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration, Foundation of Thai Gerontology Research and Development Institute (TGRI) and Thai Health Promotion Foundation, Bangkok, Thailand, 2009.
  13. U. Wongsin, T. Sakunphanit, S. Labbenchakul, and D. Pongpattrachai, “Estimate unit cost per day of long term care for dependent elderly,” Journal of Health Systems Research, vol. 8, no. 4, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  14. M. Liu, Q. Zhang, M. Lu, C. S. Kwon, and H. Quan, “Rural and urban disparity in health services utilization in China,” Medical Care, vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 767–774, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. L. M. Goeres, A. Gille, J. P. Furuno et al., “Rural-urban differences in chronic disease and drug utilization in older oregonians,” Journal of Rural Health, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 269–279, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. T. Ikai, S. Yamtree, T. Takemoto et al., “Medical care ideals among urban and rural residents in Thailand: a qualitative study,” International Journal for Equity in Health, vol. 15, no. 1, p. 2, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. H. Nishiura, S. Barua, S. Lawpoolsri et al., “Health inequalities in Thailand: geographic distribution of medical supplies in the provinces,” Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 735–740, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  18. S. Pannarunothai and A. Mills, “The poor pay more: health-related inequality in Thailand,” Social Science and Medicine, vol. 44, no. 12, pp. 1781–1790, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. Kehusmaa, I. Autti-Ramo, H. Helenius, K. Hinkka, M. Valaste, and P. Rissanen, “Factors associated with the utilization and costs of health and social services in frail elderly patients,” BMC Health Services Research, vol. 12, no. 1, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. C. Zyaambo, S. Siziya, and K. Fylkesnes, “Health status and socio-economic factors associated with health facility utilization in rural and urban areas in Zambia,” BMC Health Services Research, vol. 12, no. 1, p. 389, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. N. Saikia, Moradhvaj, and J. K. Bora, “Gender difference in health-care expenditure: evidence from India Human Development Survey,” PLoS One, vol. 11, no. 7, Article ID e0158332, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. K. Alam and A. Mahal, “Economic impacts of health shocks on households in low and middle income countries: a review of the literature,” Globalization and Health, vol. 10, no. 1, p. 21, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. L. J. Ku, L. F. Liu, and M. J. Wen, “Trends and determinants of informal and formal caregiving in the community for disabled elderly people in Taiwan,” Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 370–376, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. Woo, S. C. Ho, J. Lau, and Y. K. Yuen, “Age and marital status are major factors associated with institutionalisation in elderly Hong Kong Chinese,” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 306–309, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. J. A. Oladipo, “Utilization of health care services in rural and urban areas: a determinant factor in planning and managing health care delivery systems,” African Health Sciences, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 322–333, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. W. Suwanrada, S. Sasat, N. Witvorapong, and S. Kumruangrit, “The cost of institutional Long Term Care for Older Persons: a case study of Thammapakorn Social Welfare Development Center for Older Persons, Chiang Mai Province,” Journal of Health Systems Research, vol. 10, no. 2, 2016. View at Google Scholar
  27. National Health Security Office, National Civil Registration System, National Health Security Office, Nonthaburi, Thailand, 2015.
  28. T. Yamane, Statistics, An Introductory Analysis, Harper and Row Publishers, New York, NY, USA, 1973.
  29. K. Tisayaticom, W. Patcharanarumol, and V. Tangcharoensathien, District Hospital Costing Manual (in Thai Language), International Health Policy Planning, Bangkok, Thailand, 2001.
  30. A. L. Creese and D. Parker, Cost Analysis in Primary Health Care : A Training Manual for Programme Managers, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1994.
  31. Bank of Thailand, Foreign Exchange Rates, Bank of Thailand, Bangkok, Thailand, March 2017, https://www.bot.or.th/English/Statistics/FinancialMarkets/ExchangeRate/_layouts/Application/ExchangeRate/ExchangeRate.aspx.
  32. P. Diehr, D. Yanez, A. Ash, M. Hornbrook, and D. Lin, “Methods for analyzing health care utilization and costs,” Annual Review of Public Health, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 125–144, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. T. P. Hofer, R. A. Wolfe, P. J. Tedeschi, L. F. McMahon, and J. R. Griffith, “Use of community versus individual socioeconomic data in predicting variation in hospital use,” Health Services Research, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 243–259, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  34. D. Gregori, M. Petrinco, S. Bo, A. Desideri, F. Merletti, and E. Pagano, “Regression models for analyzing costs and their determinants in health care: an introductory review,” International Journal for Quality in Health Care, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 331–341, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. X. Nie, L. Wang, C. S. Tracy, R. Moineddin, and R. E. Upshur, “Health care service utilization among the elderly: findings from the Study to Understand the Chronic Condition Experience of the Elderly and the Disabled (SUCCEED project),” Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1044–1049, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. W. J. Baumol, “Health care, education and the cost of disease: a looming crisis for public choice,” Public Choice, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 17–28, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. K. Bolin, B. Lindgren, and P. Lundborg, “Informal and formal care among single-living elderly in Europe,” Health Economics, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 393–409, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. J. Lee and M. H. Kim, “The effect of employment transitions on physical health among the elderly in South Korea: a longitudinal analysis of the Korean Retirement and Income Study,” Social Science and Medicine, vol. 181, pp. 122–130, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. T. R. Fried, E. H. Bradley, C. S. Williams, and M. E. Tinetti, “Functional disability and health care expenditures for older persons,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 161, no. 21, pp. 2602–2607, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. S. MacLeod, S. Musich, S. Gulyas et al., “The impact of inadequate health literacy on patient satisfaction, healthcare utilization, and expenditures among older adults,” Geriatric Nursing, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 334–341, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. M. Li, Y. Zhang, Z. Zhang, Y. Zhang, L. Zhou, and K. Chen, “Rural-urban differences in the long-term care of the disabled elderly in China,” PLoS One, vol. 8, no. 11, Article ID e79955, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. C. E. McConnel and M. R. Zetzman, “Urban/rural differences in health service utilization by elderly persons in the United States,” Journal of Rural Health, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 270–280, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  43. National Statistical Office, Survey of Elderly in Thailand 2014, National Statistical Office (NSO), Thailand, 2014.
  44. C. Laubunjong, N. Phlainoi, S. Graisurapong, and W. Kongsuriyanavin, “The pattern of caregiving to the elderly by their families in rural communities of Suratthani Province,” ABAC Journal, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 64–74, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  45. S. Srithamrongsawat and K. Bundhamcharoen, Synthesis of long-term care system for the elderly in Thailand, Foundation of Thai Gerontology Research and the Development Institute, Bangkok, Thailand, 2010.
  46. U. Schneider, B. Trukeschitz, R. Muhlmann, and I. Ponocny, “Do I stay or do I go?”–job change and labor market exit intentions of employees providing informal care to older adults,” Health Economics, vol. 22, no. 10, pp. 1230–1249, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. M. Zencir, N. Kuzu, N. G. Beser, A. Ergin, B. Catak, and T. Sahiner, “Cost of Alzheimer’s disease in a developing country setting,” International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 616–622, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. A. Riewpaiboon, W. Riewpaiboon, K. Ponsoongnern, and B. Van den Berg, “Economic valuation of informal care in Asia: a case study of care for disabled stroke survivors in Thailand,” Social Science and Medicine, vol. 69, no. 4, pp. 648–653, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. N. Sharma, S. Chakrabarti, and S. Grover, “Gender differences in caregiving among family-caregivers of people with mental illnesses,” World Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 7–17, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  50. R. del-Pino-Casado, A. Frias-Osuna, P. A. Palomino-Moral, and J. Ramon Martinez-Riera, “Gender differences regarding informal caregivers of older people,” Journal of Nursing Scholarship, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 349–357, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. C. de Meijer, M. Koopmanschap, T. B. d’ Uva, and E. van Doorslaer, “Determinants of long-term care spending: age, time to death or disability?” Journal of Health Economics, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 425–438, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. S. Limwattananon, V. Tangcharoensathien, K. Tisayaticom, T. Boonyapaisarncharoen, and P. Prakongsai, “Why has the Universal Coverage Scheme in Thailand achieved a pro-poor public subsidy for health care?” BMC Public Health, vol. 12, no. 1, p. S6, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. T. Lee, “The relationship between severity of physical impairment and costs of care in an elderly population,” Geriatric Nursing, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 102–106, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar