Journal of Aging Research / 2020 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

Morale in Old Age and Its Association with Sociodemographic, Social, and Health-Related Factors in Different Age Groups

Table 2

Sample characteristics according to age group and of the total sample (n = 9047).

66-year-olds (n = 2711)
M (SD) (%)
71-year-olds (n = 2806)
M (SD) (%)
76-year-olds (n = 1619)
M (SD) (%)
81-year-olds (n = 1214)
M (SD) (%)
86-year-olds (n = 697)
M (SD) (%)
Total (n = 9047)
M (SD) (%)

PGCMS (continuous)13.6 (3.1)13.1 (3.2)12.4 (3.3)11.7 (3.3)10.9 (3.4)12.8 (3.3)
Higher educational level72.760.550.946.739.159.0
In a relationship82.179.572.162.244.374.0
 Västerbotten, Sweden43.847.051.446.746.946.7
 Swedish-speakers in Ostrobothnia, Finland23.125.622.125.327.424.3
 Finnish-speakers in Ostrobothnia and Southern Ostrobothnia, Finland33.127.426.628.025.728.9
Place of residence
Born in the same place as you live now36.633.633.136.033.734.7
Making ends meet without difficulties63.365.164.064.667.164.4
Frequent contacts with children and grandchildren56.
Frequent contacts with friends and neighbors40.844.242.842.341.142.4
High trust in friends and neighbors68.366.364.558.556.064.8
2 confidants or more69.968.566.367.760.367.8
Active in an association45.348.152.647.639.747.4
Perceived loneliness7.97.610.514.418.49.9
Gone through a crisis during the preceding year46.643.946.247.545.845.7
Impaired vision0.
Impaired hearing0.
Sleeping well73.170.570.468.263.170.4
Mainly own teeth85.977.468.759.648.474.1
Independent in IADL76.266.353.138.228.760.2
Independent in PADL96.295.393.692.285.294.1
Poor self-rated health23.930.740.552.063.735.7

Note. Percentages are reported for dichotomous variables, and mean (M) and standard deviation (SD) for continuous variables. PGCMS: Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale; IADL: Instrumental Activities of Daily Living; PADL: Personal Activities of Daily Living.

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