Journal of Aging Research / 2020 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

Morale in Old Age and Its Association with Sociodemographic, Social, and Health-Related Factors in Different Age Groups

Table 2

Sample characteristics according to age group and of the total sample (n = 9047).

66-year-olds (n = 2711)
M (SD) (%)
71-year-olds (n = 2806)
M (SD) (%)
76-year-olds (n = 1619)
M (SD) (%)
81-year-olds (n = 1214)
M (SD) (%)
86-year-olds (n = 697)
M (SD) (%)
Total (n = 9047)
M (SD) (%)

PGCMS (continuous)13.6 (3.1)13.1 (3.2)12.4 (3.3)11.7 (3.3)10.9 (3.4)12.8 (3.3)
Woman53.352.151.754.163.453.5
Higher educational level72.760.550.946.739.159.0
In a relationship82.179.572.162.244.374.0
Region
 Västerbotten, Sweden43.847.051.446.746.946.7
 Swedish-speakers in Ostrobothnia, Finland23.125.622.125.327.424.3
 Finnish-speakers in Ostrobothnia and Southern Ostrobothnia, Finland33.127.426.628.025.728.9
Place of residence
 Urban40.240.741.743.741.741.2
 Semiurban18.319.122.419.122.519.7
 Rural41.440.235.937.235.839.1
Born in the same place as you live now36.633.633.136.033.734.7
Making ends meet without difficulties63.365.164.064.667.164.4
Frequent contacts with children and grandchildren56.156.051.154.455.354.9
Frequent contacts with friends and neighbors40.844.242.842.341.142.4
High trust in friends and neighbors68.366.364.558.556.064.8
2 confidants or more69.968.566.367.760.367.8
Active in an association45.348.152.647.639.747.4
Perceived loneliness7.97.610.514.418.49.9
Gone through a crisis during the preceding year46.643.946.247.545.845.7
Impaired vision0.91.51.82.24.21.7
Impaired hearing0.71.21.52.45.31.6
Stroke4.46.79.311.413.07.5
Pain47.247.146.351.155.448.1
Sleeping well73.170.570.468.263.170.4
Mainly own teeth85.977.468.759.648.474.1
Independent in IADL76.266.353.138.228.760.2
Independent in PADL96.295.393.692.285.294.1
Poor self-rated health23.930.740.552.063.735.7
Depression10.711.813.715.122.413.0

Note. Percentages are reported for dichotomous variables, and mean (M) and standard deviation (SD) for continuous variables. PGCMS: Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale; IADL: Instrumental Activities of Daily Living; PADL: Personal Activities of Daily Living.

We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions.