Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Advanced Transportation
Volume 2017, Article ID 5169176, 14 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/5169176
Research Article

Assessment of Drivers’ Perceptions of Various Police Enforcement Strategies and Associated Penalties and Rewards

Department of Civil Engineering, Qatar University, P.O. Box 2713, Doha, Qatar

Correspondence should be addressed to Khaled Shaaban; aq.ude.uq@nabaahsk

Received 21 September 2016; Revised 12 November 2016; Accepted 5 December 2016; Published 15 January 2017

Academic Editor: Richard S. Tay

Copyright © 2017 Khaled Shaaban. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. C. J. Murray and A. D. Lopez, The Global Burden of Disease, Harvard School of Public Health for the World Health Organization and the World Bank, Cambridge, Mass, USA, 1996.
  2. K. Shaaban and H. M. Hassan, “Modeling significant factors affecting Commuters’ perspectives and propensity to use the new proposed metro service in Doha,” Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, vol. 41, no. 12, pp. 1054–1064, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. K. Shaaban and E. Radwan, “Rebuilding the transportation system in the city of Doha,” Journal of Traffic and Logistics Engineering, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 241–247, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. “Driver's attitude towards new traffic law in the state of qatar,” in Proceedings of the WAPOR 65th Annual Conference, E. Elawad, A. Dop, L. Kien, and K. Shaaban, Eds., Hong Kong, June 2012.
  5. B. Tasch, “The 25 richest countries,” ranked, 2016.
  6. WorldsAtlas, The Richest Countries in the World 2016, http://www.worldatlas.com/articles/100008-the-richest-nations-in-the-world-the-ten-richest-countries-on-the-planet.
  7. BQ Magazine, “Population of Qatar by nationality,” 2013, http://www.bq-magazine.com/economy/2013/12/population-qatar.
  8. F. De Bel-Air, “Demography, migration, and labour market in Qatar,” Gulf Research Center, Contract No.: GLMM-EN-No.8/2014, 2014.
  9. Statistics QMoDPa, Final Results of Household Expenditure and Income Survey (2012-2013), 2014.
  10. MDPS, Qatar Population and Social Statistics, Qatar's Ministry of Development, Planning and Statistics, 2015.
  11. L. F. P. de Figueiredo, S. Rasslan, V. Bruscagin, R. Cruz Jr., and M. R. e Silva, “Increases in fines and driver licence withdrawal have effectively reduced immediate deaths from trauma on Brazilian roads: first-year report on the new traffic code,” Injury, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 91–94, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. O. T. Hussain, M. S. Nayyar, F. A. Brady, J. C. Beirne, and L. F. A. Stassen, “Speeding and maxillofacial injuries: impact of the introduction of penalty points for speeding offences,” British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 15–19, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. Pulido, P. Lardelli, L. De La Fuente, V. M. Flores, F. Vallejo, and E. Regidor, “Impact of the demerit point system on road traffic accident mortality in Spain,” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 274–276, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. Farchi, F. Chini, P. G. Rossi, L. Camilloni, P. Borgia, and G. Guasticchi, “Evaluation of the health effects of the new driving penalty point system in the Lazio Region, Italy, 2001–4,” Injury Prevention, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 60–64, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. K. Shaaban, “Comparative study of road traffic rules in Qatar compared to Western Countries,” in Proceedings of the Transport Research Arena 2012, vol. 48, pp. 992–999, Athens , Greece, 2012.
  16. S. D. Lawson, Red-light running: accidents and surveillance cameras, 1991.
  17. H. W. McGee and K. A. Eccles, Impact of Red Light Camera Enforcement on Crash Experience, Transportation Research Board, 2003.
  18. F. M. Council, B. N. Persaud, K. A. Eccles, C. Lyon, and M. S. Griffith, “Safety evaluation of red-light cameras,” Tech. Rep., 2005. View at Google Scholar
  19. B. Persaud, F. M. Council, C. Lyon, K. Eccles, and M. Griffith, “Multijurisdictional safety evaluation of red light cameras,” Transportation Research Record, no. 1922, pp. 29–37, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. R. A. Retting, A. F. Williams, C. M. Farmer, and A. F. Feldman, “Evaluation of red light camera enforcement in Oxnard, California,” Accident Analysis & Prevention, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 169–174, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. R. A. Retting, A. F. Williams, C. M. Farmer, and A. F. Feldman, “Evaluation of red light camera enforcement in Fairfax, Va., USA,” ITE Journal (Institute of Transportation Engineers), vol. 69, no. 8, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. Hooke, J. Knox, and D. Portas, Cost Benefit Analysis of Traffic Light & Speed Cameras, Home Office, Police Research Group, London, UK, 1996.
  23. MOI. Qatar Traffic Law as Promulgated by Decree—Law No. 19 of 2007: Ministry of Interior, 2007, http://www.almeezan.qa/LawView.aspx?opt&LawID=3993&language=en.
  24. G. Chen, W. Meckle, and J. Wilson, “Speed and safety effect of photo radar enforcement on a highway corridor in British Columbia,” Accident Analysis & Prevention, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 129–138, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. R. Elvik, “The importance of confounding in observational before-and-after studies of road safety measures,” Accident Analysis & Prevention, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 631–635, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. P. G. Champness, M. C. Sheehan, and L.-M. Folkman, “Time and distance halo effects of an overtly deployed mobile speed camera,” in Proceedings of the Road Safety Research, Policing and Education Conference, Wellington, New Zealand, November 2005.
  27. S. Y. Ali, O. Al-Saleh, and P. A. Koushki, “Effectiveness of automated speed-monitoring cameras in Kuwait,” Transportation Research Record, no. 1595, pp. 20–26, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. P. Liu, X. Zhang, W. Wang, and C. Xu, “Driver response to automated speed enforcement on rural highways in China,” Transportation Research Record, no. 2265, pp. 109–117, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. S. M. Christie, R. A. Lyons, F. D. Dunstan, and S. J. Jones, “Are mobile speed cameras effective? A controlled before and after study,” Injury Prevention, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 302–306, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. D. Keall, L. J. Povey, and W. J. Frith, “The relative effectiveness of a hidden versus a visible speed camera programme,” Accident Analysis & Prevention, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 277–284, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. P. Jones, V. Sauerzapf, and R. Haynes, “The effects of mobile speed camera introduction on road traffic crashes and casualties in a rural county of England,” Journal of Safety Research, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 101–110, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. R. Tay, “General and specific deterrent effects of traffic enforcement: do we have to catch offenders to reduce crashes?” Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 209–223, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. E. Chen and A. Tarko, “Analysis of crash frequency in work zones with focus on police enforcement,” Transportation Research Record, no. 2280, pp. 127–134, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. D. R. Axup, “Enforcement-a review of Australian techniques,” in Proceedings of the 15th Australian Road Research Board (ARRB) Conference, vol. 15, no. 7 of Australian Road Research Board, pp. 26–31, Darwin, Australia, August 1990.
  35. P. M. Hurst, “Can anyone reward safe driving?” Accident Analysis & Prevention, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 217–220, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. EmiratesNews, “1,000 Drivers win prizes in Dubai Traffic Police's ‘white points’ contest for 2013,” 2014, http://www.emirates247.com/news/emirates/1-000-drivers-win-prizes-in-dubai-traffic-police-s-white-points-contest-for-2013-2014-03-20-1.542389.
  37. “Traffic policing and road safety for individuals and for populations,” in Proceedings of the Australasian College of Road Safety Conference, A Safe System: Expanding the Reach: Australasian College of Road Safety National Conference (ACRS '12), I. J. Faulks, M. Lane, and J. D. Irwin, Eds., Sydney, Australia, 2012.
  38. “Addressing issues of driver distraction in traffic offender management,” in Proceedings of the Australasian College of Road Safety Conference 2012, I. Faulks, Ed., Sydney, Australia, 2012.
  39. DMV.ORG, Defensive Driving in North Dakota, http://www.dmv.org/defensive-driving/faq.php.
  40. Arizona_Traffic_School, Traffic Survival School, https://www.aztrafficschools.com/classes/survival/.
  41. A. K. Lund and A. F. Williams, “A review of the literature evaluating the defensive driving course,” Accident Analysis and Prevention, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 449–460, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. S. Payne, A. Brownlea, and A. Hall, Evaluation of Queensland Defensive Driving Course, Department of Transport, Office of Road Safety, 1984.
  43. U.S. Department of Transportation National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and America USo, Community Service Restitution Programs for Alcohol Related Traffic Offenders—Volume II: Case Studies and Resource Materials, 1985.
  44. FoxBusiness. Pay your speeding ticket by picking up litter, 2011, http://www.foxbusiness.com/features/2011/06/24/pay-your-speeding-ticket-by-picking-up-litter.html.
  45. HeraldSun. Victoria Police gets new traffic cameras to nab motorists using mobile phones or not wearing seat belts from 700m away, 2014, http://www.heraldsun.com.au/news/law-order/victoria-police-gets-new-traffic-cameras-to-nab-motorists-using-mobile-phones-or-not-wearing-seat-belts-from-700m-away/story-fni0fee2-1226884287563.
  46. RoadTrafficTechnology.com, Dubai Traffic Police: ‘Vitronic Speed Camera Six Times More Efficient Than Radar’, 2014, http://www.roadtraffic-technology.com/contractors/photo_enforcement/vitronic-photo-enforcement/pressdubai-traffic-police-vitronic-speed-camera.html.
  47. G. D. Israel, Determining Sample Size, University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS, 1992.
  48. P. McCullagh and J. A. Nelder, Generalized Linear Models, CRC Press, 1989.
  49. B. Scott-Parker, B. Watson, M. J. King, and M. K. Hyde, “Punishment avoidance and intentional risky driving behaviour: what are the implications for ‘getting away with it’?” in Psychology of Punishment: New Research, N. Castro, Ed., pp. 55–78, Nova Science Publishers, New York, NY, USA, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  50. L. Bates, S. Allen, and B. Watson, “The influence of the elements of procedural justice and speed camera enforcement on young novice driver self-reported speeding,” Accident Analysis & Prevention, vol. 92, pp. 34–42, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  51. M. H. Cameron and J. T. Sanderson, “Review of police operations for traffic law enforcement,” Tech. Rep. TS 82/​5, Royal Automobile Club of Victoria, Melbourne, Australia, 1982. View at Google Scholar
  52. J. M. Barkworth and K. Murphy, “Procedural justice policing and citizen compliance behaviour: the importance of emotion,” Psychology, Crime & Law, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 254–273, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  53. B. Bradford, “Policing and social identity: procedural justice, inclusion and cooperation between police and public,” Policing and Society, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 22–43, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. M. Hough, J. Jackson, B. Bradford, A. Myhill, and P. Quinton, “Procedural justice, trust, and institutional legitimacy,” Policing, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 203–210, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  55. J. Jackson, B. Bradford, M. Hough, A. Myhill, P. Quinton, and T. R. Tyler, “Why do people comply with the law?” British Journal of Criminology, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 1051–1071, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. U. Mazureck and J. Hattem, “Rewards for safe driving behavior: influence on following distance and speed,” Transportation Research Record, vol. 1980, pp. 31–38, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus